Appendix 3.

Meteorological Observations in the Cold Season of 1854-5

by

Lieutenants Herne, Stroyan, and Burton.

Meteorological Observations by Lieut. Herne, at and near Berberah,

During the months of November and December, 1854.

Date. Mountain Barometer. Aneroid Barometer.
9 A.M. 3 P.M. 9 A.M. 3 P.M.
1854 Barom. Therm. Barom. Therm. Barom. Therm. Barom. Therm.
Nov. 17 - - - - 30.065 78 30.000 85 At Aynterad.
Nov. 22 30.190 89 - - 30.200 89 - - At Berberah.
Nov. 23 30.190 88 30.150 87 30.200 88 30.087 87 At Berberah.
Nov. 24 - - 30.150 87 - - 30.100 87 At Berberah.
Nov. 28 - - - - 27.025 73 - - At the foot of the second range of hills
Dec. 2 - - - - 27.175 72 27.150 81 At Garbadir.
Dec. 4 - - - - 26.600 71 - - At half-past 1 p.m., barom. 24.600, therm. 68, top of Gulays.
Dec. 5 - - - - 26.600 73 26.625 80 At the foot of Gulays.
Dec. 6 - - - - 26.625 73 - - At the foot of Gulays.
Dec. 15 - - 30.190 81 - - - - At Berberah.
Dec. 16 30.300 88 - -
Dec. 21 30.250 80 - -
Dec. 22 30.200 80 30.130 81 - - - -
Dec. 24 30.190 79 - -
Dec. 25 30.150 88 30.050 83
Dec. 26 30.182 86 30.050 83
Dec. 27 30.190 70 - -
Dec. 28 30.150 86 30.050 82
Dec. 29 30.200 88 30.050 82
Dec. 30 30.190 87 30.080 84
Dec. 31 30.200 85 30.080 84

Corrections for Mountain Barometer.

Capacities. 1/60.
Neutral point, 29.762.
Capillary action, +050.
Temperature, 60.
Reading higher than Observatory Standard, 0.030.


Meteorological Observations by Lieut. Herne, at and near Berberah.

In January, 1855.

Date. Mountain Barometer. Aneroid Barometer.
9 A.M. 3 P.M. 9 A.M. 3 P.M.
1855 Barom. Therm. Barom. Therm. Barom. Therm. Barom. Therm.
Jan. 2 30.200 88 30.100 87 These were taken at Berberah during what is termed the N.E. Monsun, the wind invariably coming from that quarter. The wind used to set in about half-past 9 A.M. and died away about 10 P.M.

A gentle land wind always set in towards the morning.

Jan. 3 30.180 83 30.080 84
Jan. 4 30.150 84 30.080 82
Jan. 5 - - 30.033 83
Jan. 6 30.136 84 30.040 85
Jan. 7 30.128 84 - - 30.030 84
Jan. 8 30.150 81 30.044 84 30.075 81 29.975 84
Jan. 10 30.170 78 30.100 83 30.050 82 30.025 84
Jan. 11 30.200 80 30.090 83 30.100 81 30.025 84
Jan. 12 30.228 82 - - 30.125 83

-

Jan. 13 30.240 81 30.120 83 30.125 83 30.050 83
Jan. 15 30.025 78 30.150 82 30.125 83 30.100 82
Jan. 16 30.280 80 30.150 81 30.150 84 30.090 82
Jan. 17 30.290 80

-

-

30.175 85

-

Jan. 18 30.230 80 30.116 81 30.130 85 30.025 82
Jan. 19 30.132 77 30.100 82 30.075 81 30.025 83
Jan. 20 30.150 77 30.032 81 30.050 80 29.950 82
Jan. 21 30.150 78 30.028 81 30.025 83 29.950 82
Jan. 22

-

-

-

-

Jan. 23 30.190 78 30.072 82 30.075 80 30.000 83
Jan. 24 30.226 80 30.124 81 30.125 82 30.025 82
Jan. 25 30.246 79

-

30.150 82
Jan. 26 30.250 80 30.192 82 30.175 82 30.100 83
Jan. 27 30.250 80 30.150 82 30.175 83 30.075 83
Jan. 28 30.250 80 30.100 82 30.150 81 30.025 83
Jan. 29 30.160 79

-

-

30.075 82
Jan. 30 30.150 79 30.050 83 30.075 82 29.975 84

Corrections for Mountain Barometer.

Capacities 1/60.
Neutral point, 29.762.
Capillary action, +050.
Temperature, 60.
Reading higher than Observatory Standard, 0.030.


Observations by Lieut. Herne, 1st Bombay European Regiment of Fusiliers, taken at Berberah.

Date. Mountain Barometer. Aneroid Barometer.
Half-past 6 A.M. Half-past 9 P.M. Noon. Half-past 3 P.M.
1855 Barom. Therm. Barom. Therm. Barom. Therm. Barom. Therm.
Feb. 8 30.238 76 30.280 79 30.210 82 30.150 81 A little rain this morning.

Aner.

30.125 76 30.200 78 30.125 80 30.050 80
Feb. 9 30.160 74 82

Aner.

30.060 74

-

- - - - - Cloudy, and having the appearance of rain.
Feb. 10 30.150 76 30.210 83 30.140 84 30.091 82

Aner.

30.050 76 30.130 83 30.050 82 30.000 80 The last two at half-past 4.
Feb. 11 30.140 77 30.180 81 30.118 82 30.056 82

Aner.

30.030 76 30.100 81 30.050 80 30.000 80
Feb. 12 30.110 76 30.114 80 30.100 83 30.042 82

Aner.

30.010 76 30.075 79 30.025 82 29.960 80
Feb. 13 30.116 77 30.114 79 30.092 80 30.038 81 Raining among the hills close to Berberah.

Aner.

30.030 76 30.070 78 30.025 78.5 29.975 79
Feb. 14 30.086 77 30.118 78 30.116 77 30.040 75 Had rain more or less up to 3 p.m.

Aner.

30.015 76 30.090 77 30.050 76 29.950 74
Feb. 15 30.100 74 - - 30.110 76 30.050 75 Rain more or less the whole day.

Aner.

30.000 73 - - 30.025 74 29.950 74
Feb. 16 - - - - 30.026 79.5 29.982 77.5

Aner.

- - - - 29.912 78 29.900 76 Rain more or less the whole day.
Feb. 17 - - 30.100 77 30.046 80 30.000 79 Rain in the morning; remainder of day fine.

Aner.

- - 30.000 76 29.950 79 29.915 78
Feb. 18 - - 30.100 89 30.068 80 30.016 78 Rain in the morning.

Aner.

- - 30.012 78 29.960 78 29.925 77 Rain in the afternoon.
Feb. 19* Aner.

-

30.025 - 29.975 76 29.915 76 Rain the whole day.
Feb. 20 Aner. 29.925 73 30.000 79 29.960 86 29.925 83 Mountain barom. packed up.
Feb. 21 Aner. 29.950 73 30.025 77 30.000 83 29.950 82
Feb. 22 Aner. 30.000 75 30.075 81 30.050 84 30.000 85
Feb. 23 Aner. - - 30.060 81 30.050 84
Feb. 24 Aner. 30.025 77 30.075 84 30.060 88 30.000 84
Feb. 25 Moun. 30.142 74 30.236 83 30.200 88 - - Mountain barometer.

Aner.

30.012 73 30.125 83 30.110 86
Feb. 26 Moun. - - 30.304 82 30.246 87 30.200 84

Aner.

- - 30.175 83 30.150 86 30.075 83 N.B.--The Aneroid for February, 1855, was .027 higher than Mountain barometer corrected for temperature.
Feb. 27 - - 30.284 81 30.218 86 30.148 83

Aner.

- - 30.150 82 30.112 85 30.050 83
Feb. 28 30.200 70 30.264 82 30.228 86 30.120 85

Aner.

30.060 68 30.160 83 30.125 85 30.050 84
Mar. 1 30.184 72 - - 30.172 86 30.134 84.5

Aner.

30.050 72 - - 30.075 86 30.050 83
Mar. 2 Aner.

-

30.050 82
Mar. 5 Dubar Aner. - - - 29.500 83 29.425 82
Mar. 6 Aner. - - 29.500 84 29.460 82 29.400 82
Mar. 7 29.460 80

* Moved into a tent from temporary house.

Mountain Barometer--
Capacities 1/60.
Neutral point, 29.762.
Capillary action, +050.
Temperature, 60.
Reading higher than Observatory Standard, 030.


Thermometric Observations by Lieut. Burton,

During the months of November, December 1854 and Jan. 1855.

Date Temperature Remarks.
6 a.m. Noon 4 p.m.
1854
Nov. 4 78 83 83 At Zayla. Thermometer placed in a room opening to the S. and W. Day cloudy, cirri; nights cool, heavy dew. Sea breeze from N.E.
5 81 82

-

Cirro-cumuli.
6 77 82 82 On the terrace at dawn 71; in the sun at noon 118. Sky clear; heavy dew at night.
7 78 81

-

Misty morning; dark horizon.
8 77 81 83 Air oppressive.
9 76 82 82
10 76 82 78
11 77 82

-

Zayla is open to both the land breeze (al-barri) and the sea breeze (al-bahri).

The sea breeze usually set in at 10 a.m., and continued as at Aden until sunset. Wind from W. and S.W.

The land breeze endured from nightfall till 8 a.m., when there was generally a calm. Wind from N.E.

12 78 83 83 Nimbus in morning from E. and N.E. Cloudy day. Horizon dark at nightfall.
13 77 83

-

Hazy day; cold clear night.
14 75 81 83 Cold night; clear day.
15 79 83 83 Rain clouds gathering. Rain expected by people about this time.
16 79 83 84 Cloudy morning. In afternoon rain fell upon southern hills. Atmosphere close in plain.
17 82 83 84 Thunder in morning; close and cloudy at noon. At night rain fell on hills.
18 80 83 84 Cloudy morning.
19 81 83 83 Cloudy forenoon.
20 82 82 82 Rained heavily at Zayla from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. Rain from N.E.
21 81 82

-

Fine clear day. Lightning at night.
22 82 83

-

Black clouds in morning from S.E. Windy night. Lightning from N.
23 82 83 83 Cloudy morning. Clear day.
24 76 82 82 Cool morning. Hot cloudy day.
25 78 82

-

Cool morning. Hot cloudy day.
26 77 82 82 Fresh morning. Cloudless day. Fine evening. All signs of rain have vanished.
27 76 82

-

Cloudless day. Cool night.

Left Zayla at 3 p.m. on 27th Nov.

28

-

88 88 In hut at Gudingars on Zayla Plain. Sea breeze at 10 a.m.
29 73

-

88 At same place. Rain expected.
30

-

88 86 Cloudy morning. Cool day.
Dec. 1 72 86 84 In hut. Light clouds at dawn. Hot day.
3

-

82 80 In hut below hills. Nimbus in morning. Hot sun.
4 70 80 - Rain at 8 a.m. Cloudy day. Heavy dew at night.
5 - 80 - In open air under tree. Hot sun. Cold night breeze.
6 - 79 80 In hut at foot of ascent. Wind gusty. Day cool and cloudy.
7 63

-

71 Under tree. Clear cold day. Hot sun at noon 107.
8 52 73

-

Under tree. Cloudy morning. Cold day.
10 51 74 72 In hut below hills. Clear day; cold in shade; hot in sun.
11 56 72 - Fine clear day. Atmosphere resembling that of Pisa, in Tuscany.
12 52

-

-

In hut. Hot sun. Cold wind.
13 61 78 80 In hut at Harawwah valley. No rain; season sickly; drought and dysentery.
14 54

-

-

Sun very hot, 120 at noon.
17 52 79 - In hut at Agjogsi. At dawn 41.
18 50 76 - At Agjogsi, under the hill Koralay. Fine clear weather. Nomads lament want of rain.
19 41 71 - At Agjogsi, under the hill Koralay. Fine clear weather. Nomads lament want of rain.
20 40 72 - At Agjogsi, under the hill Koralay. Fine clear weather. Nomads lament want of rain.
21 42 74 - At Agjogsi, under the hill Koralay. Fine clear weather. Nomads lament want of rain.
22 41 82 - In hut under Konti hill. Close day.
23 51

-

-

Observations taken in open air.
24

-

73 72 In hut under Gurays hills. Sun powerful
25 42 72 71 At the same place. Cool day.
26 51

-

-

Ditto. Till end of December cold winds and hot sun.
1855
Jan. 3 68

-

-

In hut below Kondura.
15 61 71 68 High wind. Cumuli. Furious wind at night. In hut, at Wilensi.
16 58 69 69 Fine clear day. In hut, at Wilensi.
17 56 72 6 Clouds on hill tops. Cold night and high wind. In hut, at Wilensi.
18 - 70 70 Hot day. No wind or clouds. In hut, at Wilensi.
19 56 77 73 Hot day. Cloudless warm night. In hut, at Wilensi.
20 56 78

-

Day hot and cloudless. In hut, at Wilensi.
21 57 77

-

Fine warm day. In hut, at Wilensi.
22 56

-

-

Left Wilensi. Hot day. Nimbi at 2 p.m. No rain. Warm light.
23 66 73 77 In the Marar Prairie. Warm cloudy day.

Thermometer Boiled.

Place. Degrees. Temperature. Corrected Altitude.
Zayla (sea level) 210 83
Halimalah (hill-top) 204 64 3.347
Agjogsi (foot of Harar hills) 201 79 5.155
Wilensi (near Harar) 200 70 5.656

Harar about 5.500

Berberah (level of sea) 210 86