1. Paul B. du Chaillu, Chap. III. "Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa." London: Murray, 1861.

2. Rev. J. Leighton Wilson of the Presbyterian Mission, eighteen years in Africa, "Western Africa," &c. New York. Harpers, 1856.

3. Barbot, book iv. chap. 9.

4. This word is the Muzungu of the Zanzibar coast, and contracted to Utángá and even Tángá it is found useful in expressing foreign wares; Utangáni's devil-fire, for instance, is a lucifer match.

5. "Abeokuta and the Camaroons Mountains," vol. ii. chap. i. London: Tinsleys, 1863.

6. See "Zanzibar City, Island, and Coast," vol. i. chap. v sect. 2.

7. "Observations on the Fevers of the West African Coast." New York: Jenkins, 1856. A more valuable work is the "Medical Topography, &c. of West Africa," by the late W.F. Daniell, M.D., 1849. Finally, Mr. Consul Hutchinson offered valuable suggestions in his work on the Niger Expedition of 1854-5 (Longmans, 1855, and republished in the "Traveller's Library").

8. M. du Chaillu ends his chapter i. with an "illustration of a Mpongwe woman," copied without acknowledgment from Mr. Wilson's "Portrait of Yanawaz, a Gaboon Princess."

9. Everywhere on the lower river "hard dollars" are highly valued. The Spanish, formerly the favourite, and always worth 4s. 2d., command only a five-franc piece at Le Plateau; moreover, the "peseta," like the shilling, is taken as a franc.

10. "The British Jews," by the Rev. John Mills. London: Houlston and Stoneman, 1853.

11. For further details see "Zanzibar City, Island, and Coast," vol. ii. chap. iv.

12. See "Zanzibar City, Island, and Coast," vol. ii. chap. v.

13. See part ii. chap. xxii. "Hans Stade," translated by Mr. Albert Tootal, annotated by myself, and published by the Hakluyt Society, 1874.

14. Captain Boteler (v. ii. p. 374) gives a sketch of the "Fetiche dance, Cape Lopez," and an admirable description of Ndá, who is mounted on stilts with a white mask, followed by negroes with chalked faces.

15. See "Zanzibar, City, Island, and Coast," vol. i. chap. vii.

16. I have discussed this subject in my "Zanzibar," vol. i. chap. xi.

17. M. du Chaillu's description of the animal is excellent (p. 282), and the people at once recognized the cut.

18. I did not see the Iboko, which M. du Chaillu (chap, xvi.) calls the "boco;" but, from the native description, I determined it to be the tsetse. He names the sandfly (chap, xvi.) "igoo-gouai." His "ibolai" or "mangrove fly" is "owole" in the singular, and "iwole" in the plural. The wasp, which he terms "eloway," is known to the Mpongwe people as "ewogoni."

19. "Introductory Remarks to a Vocabulary of the Yoruba Language." Seeleys, Fleet Street, London.

20. Hutchinson's "Ten Years' Wanderings, p. 319.

21. "Journal of the Ethnological Society," April, 1869.

22. "Zanzibar City, Island, and Coast," vol. ii. chap. ii.

23. See chap. ii.

24. First Edition, Illustration VI. (p. 71), and XLIII. (p. 297).