Tales From The Arabic, Footnotes
Volume 1

1. Breslau Text, vol. iv. pp. 134-189, Nights cclxxii.-ccxci. This is the story familiar to readers of the old "Arabian Nights" as "Abon Hassan, or the Sleeper Awakened" and is the only one of the eleven tales added by Galland to his version of the (incomplete) MS. of the Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night procured by him from Syria, the Arabic original of which has yet been discovered. (See my "Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night," Vol. IX. pp. 264 et seq.) The above title is of course intended to mark the contrast between the everyday (or waking) hours of Aboulhusn and his fantastic life in the Khalif's palace, supposed by him to have passed in a dream, and may also be rendered "The Sleeper and the Waker."

2. i.e. The Wag.

3. Always noted for debauchery.

4. i.e. the part he had taken for spending money.

5. i.e. "those," a characteristic Arab idiom.

6. Lit. draw thee near (to them).

7. i.e. that over the Tigris.

8. "Platter bread," i.e. bread baked in a platter, instead of, as usual with the Arabs, in an oven or earthen jar previously heated, to the sides of which the thin cakes of dough are applied, "is lighter than oven bread, especially if it be made thin and leavened." -- Shecouri, a medical writer quoted by Dozy.

9. Or cooking-pots.

10. Or fats for frying.

11. Or clarified.

12. Taam, lit. food, the name given by the inhabitants of Northern Africa to the preparation of millet-flour (something like semolina) called kouskoussou, which forms the staple food of the people.

13. Or "In peace."

14. Eastern peoples attach great importance, for good or evil omen, to the first person met or the first thing that happens in the day.

15. Or "attributed as sin."

16. A common Eastern substitute for soap.

17. This common formula of assent is an abbreviation of "Hearkening and obedience are due to God and to the Commander of the Faithful" or other the person addressed.

18. Dar es Selam, one of the seven "Gardens" into which the Mohammedan Paradise is divided.

19. i.e. a mattrass eighteen inches thick.

20. Complimentary form of address to eunuchs, generally used by inferiors only.

21. The morning-prayer consists of four inclinations (rekäat) only. A certain fixed succession of prayers and acts of adoration is called a rekah (sing, of rekäat) from the inclination of the body that occurs in it.

22. i.e. the terminal formula of prayer, "Peace be on us and on all the righteous servants of God!"

23. i.e. said "I purpose to make an end of prayer."

24. Or "linen."

25. A well-known poet of the time.

26. i.e. Ibrahim of Mosul, the greatest musician of his day.

27. i.e., doughty men of war, guards.

28. The Abbaside Khalifs traced their descent from Abbas, the uncle of Mohammed, and considered themselves, therefore, as belonging to the family of the Prophet.

29. i.e. May thy dwelling-place never fall into ruin.

30. i.e. the raised recess situate at the upper end of an Oriental saloon, wherein is the place of honour.

31. i.e. the necromancers.

32. Lit. I have not found that thou hast a heel blessed (or propitious) to me.

33. i.e. O thou who art a calamity to those who have to do with thee!

34. Abou Nuwas ibn Hani, the greatest poet of the time.

35. As a charm against evil spirits.

36. i.e. the vein said to have been peculiar to the descendants of Hashim, grandfather of Abbas and great-grandson of Mohammed, and to have started out between their eyes in moments of anger.

37. Lit. that I may do upon her sinister deeds.

38. "The pitcher comes not always back unbroken from the well."--English proverb.

39. i.e. of sorrow for his loss.

40. i.e. of grief for her loss.

41. Breslau Text, vol. vl. pp. 182-188, Nights ccccxxxii-ccccxxxiv.

42. The eighth Khalif (A.D. 717-720) of the house of Umeyyeh and the best and most single-hearted of all the Khalifs, with the exception of the second, Omar ben Khettab, from whom he was descended.

43. A celebrated statesman of the time, afterwards governor of Cuia* and Bassora under Omar ben Abdulaziz.

44. The most renowned poet of the first century of the Hegira. He is said to have been equally skilled in all styles of composition grave and gay.

45. Or eternal.

46. Or "in him."

47. Chief of the tribe of the Benou Suleim. Et Teberi tells this story in a different way. According to him, Abbas ben Mirdas (who was a well-known poet), being dissatisfied with the portion of booty allotted to him by the Prophet, refused it and composed a lampoon against Mohammed, who said to Ali, "Cut off this tongue which attacketh me," i.e. "Silence him by giving what will satisfy him," whereupon Ali doubled the covetous chief's share.

48. Bilal ibn Rebeh was the Prophet's freedman and crier. The word bilal signifies "moisture" or (metonymically) "beneficence" and it may well be in this sense (and not as a man's name) that it is used in the text.

49. Said to have been the best poet ever produced by the tribe of Cureish. His introduction here is an anachronism, as he died A.D. 712, five years before Omar's accession.

50. i.e. odorem pudendorum amicæ?

51. A famous poet of the tribe of the Benou Udhreh, renowned for their passionate sincerity in love-matters. He is celebrated as the lover of Butheineh, as Petrarch of Laura, and died A.D. 701, sixteen years before Omar's accession.

52. A friend of Jemil and a poet of equal renown. He is celebrated as the lover of Azzeh, whose name is commonly added to his, and kept a grocer's shop at Medina.

53. i.e. in the attitude of prayer.

54. A famous satirical poet of the time, afterwards banished by Omar for the virulence of his lampoons. His name is wrongly given by the text; it should be El Ahwes. He was a descendant of the Ansar or (Medinan) helpers of Mohammed.

55. A famous poet of the tribe of the Benou Temim and a rival of Jerir, to whom he was by some preferred. He was a notorious debauchee and Jerir, in one of the satires that were perpetually exchanged between himself and El Ferezdec, accuses his rival of having "never been a guest in any house, but he departed with ignominy and left behind him disgrace."

56. A Christian and a celebrated poet of the time.

57. The poet apparently meant to insinuate that those who professed to keep the fast of Ramazan ate flesh in secret. The word rendered "in public," i.e. openly, avowedly, may also perhaps be translated "in the forenoon," and in this El Akhtel may have meant to contrast his free-thinking disregard of the ordinances of the fast with the strictness of the orthodox Muslim, whose only meals in Ramazan-time are made between sunset and dawn-peep. As soon as a white thread can be distinguished from a black, the fast is begun and a true believer must not even smoke or swallow his saliva till sunset.

58. Prominent words of the Muezzin's fore-dawn call to prayer.

59. i.e. fall down drunk.

60. i.e. she who ensnares [all] eyes.

61. Imam, the spiritual title of the Khalif, as head of the Faith and leader (lit. "foreman") of the people at prayer.

62. Or "worldly."

63. Or "worldly."

64. A town and province of Arabia, of which (inter alia) Omar ben Abdulaziz was governor, before he came to the Khalifate.

65. Syn. munificence.

66. About 2 pounds sterling 10 s.

67. i.e. what is thy news?

68. Or "I approve of him."

69. Breslau Text, vol. vi. pp. 188-9, Night ccccxxxiv.

70. El Hejjaj ben Yousuf eth Thekefi, a famous statesman and soldier of the seventh and eighth centuries. He was governor of Chaldaea (Irak Arabi), under the fifth and sixth Khalifs of the Ommiade dynasty, and was renowned for his cruelty, but appears to have been a prudent and capable administrator, who used no more rigour than was necessary to restrain the proverbially turbulent populations of Bassora and Cufa, Most of the anecdotes of his brutality and tyranny, which abound in Arab authors, are, in all probability, apocryphal.

71. Used, by synecdoche, for "heads."

72. i.e. the governed, to wit, he who is led by a halter attached (metaphorically of course) to a ring passed through his nose, as with a camel.

73. i.e. the governor or he who is high of rank.

74. i.e. their hair, which may be considered the wealth of the head. This whole passage is a description a double-entente of a barber-surgeon.

75. Syn. cooking-pot.

76. Syn. be lowered. This passage is a similar description of an itinerant hot bean-seller.

77. The rows of threads on a weaver's loom.

78. Syn. levelleth.

79. i.e. that of wood used by the Oriental weaver to govern the warp and weft.

80. Syn. behave aright.

81. The loop of thread so called in which the weaver's foot rests.

82. Syn. eloquence.

83. Adeb, one of the terribly comprehensive words which abound in Arabic literature for the confusion of translators. It signifies generally all kinds of education and means of mental and moral discipline and seems here to mean more particularly readiness of wit and speech or presence of mind.

84. Breslau Text, vol. vi. pp. 189-191, Night ccccxxxiv.

85. Syn. (Koranic) "Thou hast swerved from justice" or "been unjust" (adeita).

86. Syn. (Koranic) "Thou hast transgressed" (caset-ta).

87. Or falling-away.

88. Koran vi. 44.

89. Or do injustice, tadilou (syn. do justice).

90. Koran iv. 134.

91. El casitouna (syn. those who act righteously or equitably).

92. Koran lxxii. 15.

93. Name of the Persian ancestor of the Barmecide (properly Bermeki) family.

94. Breslau Text, vol. vi. pp. 191-343, Nights ccccxxv-cccclxxxvii. This is the Arab version of the well-known story called, in Persian, the Bekhtyar Nameh, i.e. the Book of Bekhtyar, by which name the prince, whose attempted ruin by the envious viziers is the central incident of the tale, is distinguished in that language. The Arab redaction of the story is, to my mind, far superior to the Persian, both in general simplicity and directness of style and in the absence of the irritating conceits and moral digressions with which Persian (as well as Indian) fiction is so often overloaded. The Persian origin of the story is apparent, not only in the turn of the incidents and style and the names of the personages, but in the fact that not a single line of verse occurs in it.

95. Rawi; this is probably a copyist's mistake for raai, a beholder, one who seeth.

96. Lit. what was his affair? It may be here observed that the word keif (how?) is constantly used in the Breslau Text in the sense of ma (what?).

97. A district of Persia, here probably Persia itself.

98. Probably a corruption of Kisra (Chosroës).

99. i.e. waylaying travellers, robbing on the high road.

100. Or skill.

101. Lit. the descended fate.

102. The Arabs attribute to a man's parentage absolute power in the determination of his good and evil qualities; eg. the son of a slave, according to them, can possess none of the virtues of the free-born, whilst good qualities are in like manner considered congenitally inherent in the latter.

103. Or "business."

104. i.e. whither he should travel.

105. About half-a-crown.

106. It is a common practice with Eastern nations to keep a child (especially a son and one of unusual beauty) concealed until a certain age, for fear of the evil eye. See my "Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night," Vol. III. p. 234; Vol. IX. p. 67, etc., etc.

107. i.e. killing a man.

108. i.e., it will always be in our power to slay him, when we will.

109. i.e. the grave.

110. i.e. the wedding-day.

111. i.e. thy women

112. i.e. hath been unduly prolonged.

113. i.e. Let thy secret thoughts and purposes be righteous, even as thine outward profession.

114. See my "Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night," Vol. V. p. 264.

115. Afterwards called his "chamberlain," i.e. the keeper of the door of the harem or chief eunuch. See post, p. III.

116. i.e. the eunuch who had dissuaded Dadbin from putting her to death.

117. Apparently referring to Aboulkhair (see ante p. 107), whom Dabdin would seem to have put to death upon the vizier's false accusation, although no previous mention of this occurs.

118. The Arabs believe that each man's destiny is charactered, could we decipher it, in the sutures of his skull.

119. ie. the lex talionis, which is the essence of Muslim jurisprudence.

120. i.e. a soldier of fortune, going about from court to court, in quest of service.

121. This phrase refers to the Arab idiom, "His hand (or arm) is long or short," i.e. he is a man of great or little puissance.

122. The Arabs consider it a want of respect to allow the hands or feet to remain exposed in the presence of a superior.

123. Adeb. See ante, p. 54, note 9.

124. i.e. that he become my son-in-law.

125. It is a common Eastern practice to have the feet kneaded and pressed (shampooed) for the purpose of inducing sleep, and thus the king would habitually fall asleep with his feet on the knees of his pages.

126. Syn. whoso respecteth not his lord's women.

127. i.e. a domed tomb.

128. Of a man's life. The Muslims believe each man's last hour to be written in a book called "The Preserved Tablet."

129. i.e, the Autumnal Equinox, one of the two great festival days (the other being the New Year) of the Persians. See my "Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night," Vol. IV. p. 144.

130. i.e. heritage.

131. i.e. The Emperor of the Romans of the Lower Empire, so called by the Arabs. "Caesar" is their generic term for the Emperors of Constantinople, as is Kisra (Chosroës) for the ancient Kings of Persia.

132. i.e. Shah Khatoun.

133. i.e. our power increased by his alliance, a. familiar Arab idiom.

134. In token of deputation of authority, a ceremony usual on the appointment of a governor of a province.

135. Or enigma.

136. i.e. if my death be ordained of destiny to befall on an early day none may avail to postpone it to a later day.

137. Of life. See supra, note, p. 147.

138. The hoopoe is fabled by the Muslim chroniclers to have been to Solomon what Odin's ravens were to the Norse god. It is said to have known all the secrets of the earth and to have revealed them to him; hence the magical virtues attributed by the Mohammedans to its heart.

139. This phrase may be read either literally or in its idiomatic sense, i.e., "Folk convicted or suspected of murder or complicity in murder."

140. Or purse-belt.

141. See supra, p. 66.

142. Khilaah, lit. that which one takes off from one's own person, to bestow upon a messenger of good tidings or any other whom it is desired especially to honour. The literal meaning of the phrase, here rendered "he bestowed on him a dress of honour," is "he put off on him [that which was upon himself." A Khilaah commonly includes a horse, a sword, a girdle or waist-cloth and other articles, according to the rank of the recipient, and might more precisely be termed "a complete equipment of honour."

143. An economical mode of rewarding merit, much in favour with Eastern monarchs.

144. Breslau Text, vol. vii. pp. 251-4, Night dlxv.

145. Syn. doorkeper (hajib).

146. Ibn Khelbkan, who tells this story in a somewhat different style, on the authority of Er Reshid's brother Ibrahim ben El Mehdi, calls the person whom Jaafer expected "Abdulmelik ben Behran, the intendant of his demesnes."

147. The wearing of silk and bright colours is forbidden to the strict Muslim and it is generally considered proper, in a man of position, to wear them only on festive occasions or in private, as in the text.

148. The Abbasides or descendants of El Abbas, the Prophet's uncle, were noted for their excessive pride and pretensions to strict orthodoxy in all outward observances. Abdulmelik ben Salih, who was a well-known general and statesman of the time, was especially renowned for pietism and austerity of manners.

149. i.e. Do not let my presence trouble you.

150. As a member of the reigning family, he of course wore black clothes, that being the especial colour of the house of Abbas, adopted by them in opposition to the rival (and fallen) dynasty of the Benou Umeyyeh, whose family colour was white, that of the house of Ali being green.

151. About 25,000. Ibn Khellikan makes the debt four millions of dirhems or about 100,000

152. Breslau text, vol vii, pp.258-60, Night dlxvii.

153. Fourth Khalif of the house of Abbas, A.D. 785-786.

154. Third Khalif of the house of Abbas, A.D. 775-785.

155. The following is Et Teberi's version of this anecdote. El Mehdi had presented his son Haroun with a ruby ring, worth a hundred thousand dinars, and the latter being one day with his brother [the then reigning Khalif], El Hadi saw the ring on his finger and desired it. So, when Haroun went out from him, he sent after him, to seek the ring of him. The Khalif's messenger overtook Er Reshid on the bridge over the Tigris and acquainted him with his errand; whereupon the prince enraged at the demand, pulled off the ring and threw it into the river. When El Hadi died and Er Reshid succeeded to the throne, he went with his suite to the bridge in question and bade his Vizier Yehya ben Khalid send for divers and cause them make search for the ring. It had then been five months in the water and no one believed it would be found. However, the divers plunged into the river and found the ring in the very place where he had thrown it in, whereat Haroun rejoiced with an exceeding joy, regarding it as a presage of fair fortune.

156. This is an error. Jaafer's father Yehya was appointed by Haroun his vizier and practically continued to exercise that office till the fall of the Barmecides (A.D. 803), his sons Fezl and Jaafer acting only as his assistants or lieutenants. See my Essay on the History and Character of the Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night.

157. Another mistake. It was Fezl, the Khalif's foster-brother, to whom he used to give this title.

158. A third mistake. The whole period during which the empire was governed by Yehya and his sons was only seventeen years, i.e. A.D 786-803, but see my Essay.

159. The apparent meaning of this somewhat obscure saying is, "Since fortune is uncertain, conciliate the favour of those with whom thou hast to do by kind offices, so thou mayst find refuge with them in time of need."

160. For a detailed account of the Barmecides and of their fall, see my Essay.

161. Breslau Text, vol. vii. pp. 260-1, Night dlxviii.

162. Aboulabbas Mohammed Ibn Sabih, surnamed Ibn es Semmak (son of the fishmonger), a well-known Cufan jurisconsult and ascetic of the time. He passed the latter part of his life at Baghdad and enjoyed high favour with Er Reshid, as the only theological authority whom the latter could induce to promise him admission to Paradise.

163. Breslau Text, vol. vii. pp. 261-2, Night dlxviii.

164. Seventh Khalif of the house of Abbas, A.D. 813-33.

165. Sixth Khalif of the house of Abbas, A.D. 809-13, a sanguinary and incapable prince, whose contemplated treachery against his brother El Mamoun, (whom, by the advice of his vizier, the worthless intriguer Fezl ben Rebya, the same who was one of the prime movers in the ruin of the illustrious Barmecide family and who succeeded Yehya and his sons in the vizierate (see my Essay), he contemplated depriving of his right of succession and murdering,) was deservedly requited with the loss of his own kingdom and life. He was, by the way, put to death by El Mamoun's general, in contravention of the express orders of that generous and humane prince, who wished his brother to be sent prisoner to him, on the capture of Baghdad.

166. i.e. forfeits. It is a favourite custom among the Arabs to impose on the loser of a game, in lieu of stakes, the obligation of doing whatsoever the winner may command him. For an illustration of this practice, see my "Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night," Vol. V. pp. 336-41, Story of the Sandalwood Merchant and the Sharpers.

167. El Mamoun was of a very swarthy complexion and is said to have been the son of a black slave-girl. Zubeideh was Er Reshid's cousin, and El Amin was, therefore, a member of the house of Abbas, both on the father's and mother's side. Of this purity of descent from the Prophet's family (in which he is said to have stood alone among the Khalifs of the Abbaside dynasty) both himself and his mother were exceedingly proud, and it was doubtless this circumstance which led Er Reshid to prefer El Amin and to assign him the precedence in the succession over the more capable and worthier El Mamoun.

168. Breslau Text, vol. viii. pp. 226-9, Nights dclx-i.

169. A pre-Mohammedan King of the Arab kingdom of Hireh (a town near Cufa on the Euphrates), under the suzerainty of the Chosroes of Persia, and a cruel and fantastic tyrant.

170. The tribe to which belonged the renowned pre-Mohammedan chieftain and poet, Hatim Tal, so celebrated in the East for his extravagant generosity and hospitality.

171. i.e. I will make a solemn covenant with him before God.

172. i.e. he of the tribe of Tai.

173. In generosity.

174. A similar anecdote is told of Omar ben el Khettab, second successor of Mohammed, and will be found in my "Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night," Vol. IV. p. 239.

175. Breslau Text, vol. viii. pp. 273-8, Nights dclxxv--vi.

176. A similar story will be found in my "Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night", Vol. V. p. 263.

177. Breslau Text, vol xi. pp. 84-318, Nights dccclxxv-dccccxxx.

178. i.e. A pilgrimage. Pilgrimage is one of a Muslim's urgent duties.

179. By a rhetorical figure, Mecca is sometimes called El Hejj (the Pilgrimage) and this appears to be the case here. It is one of the dearest towns in the East and the chief occupation of its inhabitants a the housing and fleecing of pilgrims. An Arab proverb says, "There is no place in which money goes [so fast] as it goes in Mecca."

180. lit. loved with it.

181. It is not clear what is here meant by El Hejj; perhaps Medina, though this is a "visitation" and not an obligatory part of the pilgrimage. The passage is probably corrupt.

182. It is not clear what is here meant by El Hejj; perhaps Medina, though this is a "visitation" and not an obligatory part of the pilgrimage. The passage is probably corrupt.

183. Syn. whole or perfect (sehik).

184. i.e. in white woollen garments.

185. i.e. I desire a privy place, where I may make the preliminary ablution and pray.

186. It is customary in the East to give old men and women the complimentary title of "pilgrim," assuming, as a matter of course, that they have performed the obligatory rite of pilgrimage.

187. Or saint.

188. Keniseh, a Christian or other non-Muslim place of worship.

189. Apparently the harem.

190. i.e. otherwise than according to God's ordinance.

191. A city of Persian Irak.

192. Lit. its apparatus, i.e. spare strings, etc.?

193. i.e. the woman whose face he saw.

194. Lit. the place of battle, i.e. that where they had lain.

195. A common Eastern fashion of securing a shop, when left for a short time. The word shebekeh (net) may also be tendered a grating or network of iron or other metal.

196. i.e. gave her good measure.

197. i.e. she found him a good workman. Equivoque erotique, apparently founded on the to-and-fro movement of the shuttle in weaving.

198. Equivoque érotique.

199. i.e. removed the goods exposed for sale and laid them up in the inner shop or storehouse.

200. The Eastern oven is generally a great earthenware jar sunken in the earth.

201. i.e. a boughten white slave (memlouk).

202. Apparently changing places. The text is here fearfully corrupt and (as in many other parts of the Breslau Edition) so incoherent as to be almost unintelligible.

203. i.e. in the (inner) courtyard.

204. i.e. the essential nature, lit. jewel.

205. i.e. in proffering thee the kingship.

206. Without the city.

207. According to the conclusion of the story, this recompense consisted in an augmentation of the old man's allowances of food. See post, p. 245.

208. i.e. I have given my opinion.

209. This passage is evidently corrupt. I have amended it, on conjecture, to the best of my power.

210. The words ruteb wa menazil, here rendered "degrees and dignities," may also be rendered, "stations and mansions (of the moon and planets)."

211. Syn. "ailing" or "sickly."

212. i.e. the caravan with which he came.

213. i.e. I seek to marry thy daughter, not for her own sake, but because I desire thine alliance.

214. i.e. the face of his bride.

215. i.e. his wife.

216. i.e. his wife.

217. Naming the poor man.

218. Naming his daughter.

219. i.e. united.

220. Or "humble."

221. i.e. one another.

222. Or "conquer."

223. Or "commandment."

224. Lit. "will be higher than."

225. Syn. device or resource (hileh).

226. Syn. chasten or instruct.

227. Students of our old popular poetry will recognize, in the principal incident of this story, the subject of the well-known ballad, "The Heir of Linne."

228. i.e. Turcomans; afterwards called Sejestan.

229. With a pile of stones or some such landmark.

230. i.e. the extraordinary resemblance of the supposed sister to his wife.

231. The foregoing passage is evidently very corrupt and the meaning is by no means plain, but, in the absence of a parallel version, it is impossible to clear up the obscurity of the text.

232. This appears to be the sense of the text; but the whole passage is to obscure and corrupt that it is impossible to make sure of its exact meaning.

233. Meaning apparently, "thou puttest my devices to nought" or (perhaps) "thou art so skilful that I fear lest thou undermine my favour with the king and oust me from my post of vizier."

234. Lit. "land;" but the meaning is evidently as in the text.

235. The reader will recognize the well-known story used by Chaucer, Boccaccio and La Fontaine.

236. Syn. flourishing.

237. Syn. depopulated.

238. Lit. an oppressor.

239. i.e. a man of commanding presence.

240. Syn. cause flourish.

241. Syn. depopulateth.

242. Lit. the year.

243. The whole of the tither's account of himself is terribly obscure and so corrupt that it is hardly possible to make sense of it. The same remark applies to much of the rest of the story.

244. Or "cause flourish."

245. Lit. a better theologian. The Muslim law being entirely based on the Koran and the Traditions of the Prophet, the terms "lawyer" and "theologian" are necessarily synonymous among Mohammedan peoples.

246. A danic is the sixth of a dirhem, i.e. about one penny.

247. i.e. say, "May I be [triply] divorced from my wife, if etc.!" By the Muslim law, a divorce three times pronounced is irrevocable, and in case of its appearing that the user of such an oath as the above had sworn falsely, his wife would become divorced by operation of law, without further ceremony. Hence the frequency and binding nature of the oath in question.

248. i.e. thousandfold cuckold.

249. i.e. the blows which the thief had given him.

250. i.e. at least, at the most moderate reckoning.

251. Or "Breath of God," a title given to Jesus by the Mohammedans.

252. i.e. attaineth his desire.

253. Syn. guards.

254. i.e. the husbandman.

255. i.e. those bound to render suit and service to the king, as holders of fiefs.

256. Syn. the revenue or rent-charge of thy fief.

257. Heads of families?

258. Or "caused flourish."

259. Or froward.

260. i.e. sold and spent the price of.

261. i.e. his lack of means to entertain her.

262. i.e. all that can conduce to.

263. i.e. it is for you (after God) to excuse me.

264. i.e. the [supposed] rest of his hoard.

265. Apparently the idiot's name.

266. i.e. had he been on his own guard against that, etc.