Arabian Nights, Volume 12

 [FN#1] Bresi. Edit., vol. xi. pp. 321-99, Nights dccccxxx-xl.

 [FN#2] Arab. "Iklím" from the Gr. iëßìá, often used as amongst us (e.g. "other climes") for land.

 [FN#3] Bibars whose name is still famous and mostly pronounced "Baybars," the fourth of the Baharite Mamelukes whom I would call the "Soldans." Originally a slave of Al-Sálih, seventh of the Ayyubites, he rose to power by the normal process, murdering his predecessor, in A. D. 1260; and he pushed his conquests from Syria to Armenia. In his day "Saint" Louis died before Tunis (A. D. 1270).

 [FN#4] There are sundry Sáhils or shore-lands. "Sahil Misr" is the River-side of Cairo often extended to the whole of Lower Egypt (vol. i. 290): here it means the lowlands of Palestine once the abode of the noble Philistines; and lastly the term extends to the sea-board of Zanzibar, where, however, it is mostly used in the plur. "Sawáhil"=the Shores.          

 [FN#5] Arab. "Sammár" (from Samar,=conversatio nocturna),=the story-teller who in camp or house whiles away the evening hours.

 [FN#6] "Flag of the Faith:" Sanjar in old Persian=a Prince, a King.

 [FN#7] "Aider of the Faith."

 [FN#8] These policemen's tales present a curious contrast with the detective stories of M. Gaboriau and his host of imitators. In the East the police, like the old Bow Street runners, were and are still recruited principally amongst the criminal classes on the principle of "Set a thief," &c. We have seen that the Barmecide Wazirs of Baghdad "anticipated Fourier's doctrine of the passionel treatment of lawless inclinations," and employed as subordinate officers, under the Wali or Prefect of Police, accomplished villains like Ahmad al-Danaf (vol. iv. 75), Hasan Shuuman and Mercury Ali (ibid.) and even women (Dalilah the Crafty) to coerce and checkmate their former comrades. Moreover a gird at the police is always acceptable, not only to a coffee-house audience, but even to a more educated crowd; witness the treatment of the "Charley" and the "Bobby" in our truly English pantomimes.

 [FN#9] i.e. the Chief of Police, as the sequel shows.

 [FN#10] About £4.

 [FN#11] i.e. of the worlds visible and invisible.

 [FN#12] Arab. "Mukaddam:" see vol. iv, 42.

 [FN#13] "Faithful of Command;" it may be a title as well as a P. N. For "Al-Amín," see vol. iv. 261.

 [FN#14] i. e. "What have I to do with, etc.?" or "How great is the difference between me and her." The phrase is still popular in Egypt and Syria; and the interrogative form only intensifies it. The student of Egyptian should always try to answer a question by a question. His labours have been greatly facilitated by the conscientious work of my late friend Spitta Bey. I tried hard to persuade the late Rogers Bey, whose knowledge of Egyptian and Syrian (as opposed to Arabic) was considerable, that a simple grammar of Egyptian was much wanted; he promised to undertake it) but death cut short the design.

 [FN#15] Arab. "Nawwáb," plur. of Náib (lit. deputies, lieutenants)=a Nabob. Till the unhappy English occupation of Egypt, the grand old Kil'ah (Citadel) contained the palace of the Pasha and the lodgings and offices of the various officials. Foreign rulers, if they are wise, should convert it into a fort with batteries commanding the town, like that of Hyderabad, in Sind.

 [FN#16] For this famous and time-honoured building, see vol. i. 269.

 [FN#17] Arab. "Tamkín," gravity, assurance.

 [FN#18] Arab. " Iyál-hu" lit. his family, a decorous circumlocution for his wives and concubines.

 [FN#19] Arab. "Darb," lit. a road; here a large thoroughfare.

 [FN#20] When Mohammed Ali Pasha (the "Great") began to rule, he found Cairo "stifled" with filth, and gave orders that each householder, under pain of confiscation, should keep the street before his house perfectly clean. This was done after some examples had been made and the result was that since that time Cairo never knew the plague. I am writing at Tangier where a Mohammed Ali is much wanted.

 [FN#21] i.e. Allah forfend!

 [FN#22] Arab. "Mustauda'"=a strong place where goods are deposited and left in charge.

 [FN#23] Because, if she came to grief, the people of the street, and especially those of the adjoining houses would get into trouble. Hence in Moslem cities, like Damascus and Fez, the Hárát or quarters are closed at night with strong wooden doors, and the guards will not open them except by means of a silver key. Mohammed Ali abolished this inconvenience, but fined and imprisoned all night-walkers who carried no lanterns. See Pilgrimage, vol. i. 173,

 [FN#24] As Kazi of the quarter he was ex-officio guardian of the orphans and their property, and liable to severe punishment (unless he could pay for the luxury) in case of fraud or neglect.

 [FN#25] Altogether six thousand dinars=£3000. This sentence is borrowed from the sequel and necessary to make the sense clear.

 [FN#26] i.e. "I am going at once to complain of thee before the king unless thou give me due satisfaction by restoring the money and finding the thief."

 [FN#27] The Practice (of the Prophet) and the Holy Law (Koranic): see vols. v. 36, 167 and i. 169.

 [FN#28] In the corrupt text "Who knew me not;" thus spoiling the point.

 [FN#29] Arab. "Maut Ahmar"=violent or bloody death. For the various coloured deaths, see vol. vi. 250.

 [FN#30] i.e. for lack of sleep.

 [FN#31] i.e. of the Kazi.

 [FN#32] Arab. "Mubáh," in the theologic sense, an action which is not sinful (harám) or quasisinful (makruh); vulgarly "permitted, allowed"; so Shahrazad "ceased to say her say permitted" (by Shahryar).

 [FN#33] Arab. "Yá Khawand"; see vol. vii. 315.

 [FN#34] i.e. we both make different statements equally credible, but without proof, and the case will go against me, because thou art the greater man.

 [FN#35] Arab. "Irtiyád"=seeking a place where to stale, soft and sloping, so that the urine spray may not defile the dress. All this in one word!

 [FN#36] Arab. "Bahár," the red buphthalmus sylvester often used for such comparisons. In Algeria it is called 'Aráwah: see the Jardin Parfumé, p. 245, note 144.

 [FN#37] i.e. parties.

 [FN#38] i.e. amongst men.

 [FN#39] Almost as neat as "oú sont les neiges d'autan?"

 [FN#40] Arab. "Ádí," one transgressing, an enemy, a scoundrel.

 [FN#41] It was probably stuck in the ground like an amphora.

 [FN#42] i.e. hush up the matter.

 [FN#43] In Egypt; the former being the Eastern of the Seven Provinces extending to the Pelusium branch, and the latter to the Canobic. The "Barári" or deserts, i.e. grounds not watered by the Nile, lie scattered between the two and both are bounded South by the Kalúbíyah Province and Middle Egypt.

 [FN#44] i.e. a man ready of wit and immediate of action, as opposed to his name Al-Atwash -- one notable for levity of mind.

 [FN#45] The negative is emphatic, "I certainly saw a Jew," etc.

 [FN#46] The "Irish bull" is in the text; justified by--

         They hand-in-hand, with wand'ring steps and slow
         Through Eden took their solitary way,

 [FN#47] As we should say, "There are good pickings to be had out of this job." Even in the last generation a Jew or a Christian intriguing with an Egyptian or Syrian Moslemah would be offered the choice of death or Al-Islam. The Wali dared not break open the door because he was not sure of his game.

 [FN#48] The Jew rose seemingly to fetch his valuables and ran away, thus leaving the Wali no proof that he had been there in Moslem law which demands ocular testimony, rejects circumstantial evidence and ignores such partial witnesses as the policeman who accompanied his Chief. This I have before explained.

 [FN#49] Arab. "Raba'," lit.=spring-quarters. See Marba', iii. 79.

 [FN#50] Arab. "Ni'am," an exception to the Abbé Sicard's rule. "La consonne N est l'expression naturelle du doute chez toutes les nations, par ce que le son que rend la touche nasale, quand l'homme incertain examine s'il fera ce qu'on lui demande; ainsi NE ON, NE OT, NE EC, NE IL, d'oj l'on a fait non, not, nec, nil.

 [FN#51] For this "Haláwat al-Miftáh," or sweetmeat of the key-money, the French denier a Dieu, Old English "God's penny," see vol. vii. 212, and Pilgrimage i. 62.

 [FN#52] Showing that car. cop. had taken place. Here we find the irregular use of the inn, perpetuated in not a few of the monster hotels throughout Europe.

 [FN#53] For its rules and right performance see vol. vi. 199.

 [FN#54] i.e. the "Basil(issa)," mostly a servile name, see vol. i. 19.

 [FN#55] Arab. "La'alla," used to express the hope or expectation of some event of possible occurrence; thus distinguished from "Layta"--Would heaven! utinam! O si! etc.-- expressing desire or volition.

 [FN#56] Arab. "Balát," in Cairo the flat slabs of limestone and sandstone brought from the Turah quarries, which supplied stone for the Jízah Pyramids.

 [FN#57] Arab. "Yá Mu'arras!" here=O fool and disreputable; see vol. i. 338.

 [FN#58] These unfortunates in hot climates enjoy nothing so much as throwing off the clothes which burn their feverish skins: see Pilgrimage iii. 385. Hence the boys of Eastern cities, who are perfect imps and flibbertigibbets, always raise the cry "Majnún" when they see a man naked whose sanctity does not account for his nudity.

 [FN#59] Arab. "Daur al-Ká'ah"=the round opening made in the ceiling for light and ventilation.

 [FN#60] Arab. "La-nakhsifanna" with the emphatic termination called by grammarians "Nún al-taakid"--the N of injunction. Here it is the reduplicated form, the Nun al-Sakílah or heavy N. The addition of Lá (not) e.g. "Lá yazrabanna"=let him certainly not strike answers to the intensive or corroborative negative of the Greek effected by two negations or even more. In Arabic as in Latin and English two negatives make an affirmative.

 [FN#61] Parturition and death in warm climates, especially the damp-hot like Egypt are easy compared with both processes in the temperates of Europe. This is noticed by every traveller. Hence probably Easterns have never studied the artificial Euthanasia which is now appearing in literature. See p. 143 "My Path to Atheism," by Annie Besant, London: Freethought Publishing Company, 28, Stonecutter Street, E. C., 1877, based upon the Utopia of the highly religious Thomas Moore. Also "Essay on Euthanasia," by P. D. Williams, Jun., and Mr. Tollemache in the "Nineteenth Century."

 [FN#62] i.e. he whose turn it is to sit on the bench outside the police office in readiness for emergencies.

 [FN#63] Arab. "’Udúl" (plur. of 'Ádil), gen. men of good repute, qualified as witnesses in the law court, see vol. iv. 271. It is also used (as below) for the Kazi's Assessors.

 [FN#64] About £80.

 [FN#65] Arab. "Kitáb"=book, written bond. This officiousness of the neighbours is thoroughly justified by Moslem custom; and the same scene would take place in this our day. Like the Hindú's, but in a minor degree, the Moslem's neighbours form a volunteer police which oversees his every action. In the case of the Hindú this is required by the exigencies of caste, an admirable institution much bedevilled by ignorant Mlenchbas, and if "dynamiting" become the fashion in England, as it threatens to become, we shall be obliged to establish "Vigilance Committees" which will be as inquisitorial as caste

 [FN#66] e.g. writing The contract of A. with B., daughter of Such-an-one, etc.

 [FN#67] Arab. "Hujjat," which may also mean an excuse.

 [FN#68] The last clause is supplied by Mr. Payne to stop a gap in the broken text.

 [FN#69] The text idiotically says "To the King."

 [FN#70] In the text "Nahnu"=we, for I, a common vulgarism in Egypt and Syria.

 [FN#71] This clause has required extensive trimming; the text making the Notary write out the contract (which was already written) in the woman's house.

 [FN#72] Arab. "Husn tadbír"=lit. "beauty of his contrivance." Husn, like pulcher, beau and bello, is applied to moral intellectual qualities as well as to physical and material. Hence the iáëÎ ãÝkùí or old gentleman which in Romaic becomes Calogero, a monk.

 [FN#73] i.e. that some one told me the following tale.

 [FN#74] Arab. "Mutawallí": see vol. i. 259.

 [FN#75] i.e. his Moslem neighbours.

 [FN#76] In the text is a fearful confusion of genders.

 [FN#77] Her object was to sue him for the loss of the pledge and to demand fabulous damages.

 [FN#78] Arab. "Ya'tamidúna hudá-hum"=purpose the right direction, a skit at the devotees of her age and sex; and an impudent comment upon the Prefect's address "O she-devil!"

 [FN#79] The trick has often been played in modern times at fairs, shows, etc. Witness the old joe Miller of the “Moving Multitude.”

 [FN#80] Apparently meaning the forbidden pleasures of wine and wassail, loose talk and tales of women's wiles, a favourite subject with the lewder sort of Moslem.

 [FN#81] i.e. women's tricks.

 [FN#82] The "Turkoman" in the text first comes in afterwards.

 [FN#83] Arab. "Kásid," the old Anglo-lndian "Cossid"; see vol. vii. 340.

 [FN#84] Being a merchant he wore dagger and sword, a safe practice as it deters attack and far better than carrying hidden weapons, derringers and revolvers which, originating in the United States, have now been adopted by the most civilised nations in Europe.

 [FN#85] I have noted (vol. ii. 186, iv. 175) the easy expiation of perjury amongst Moslems, an ugly blot in their moral code.

 [FN#86] i.e. Enter in the name of Allah.

 [FN#87] i.e. Damn your soul for leading me into this danger!

 [FN#88] Arab. "Saff Kamaríyát min al-Zujáj." The Kamaríyah is derived by Lane (Introd. M.E.) from Kamar=moon; by Baron Von Hammer from Khumárawayh, second of the Banu-Tulún dynasty, at the end of the ixth century A.D., when stained glass was introduced into Egypt. N.B.--It must date from many centuries before. The Kamariyah are coloured glass windows about 2 feet high by 18 inches wide, placed in a row along the upper part of the Mashrabíyah or projecting lattice-window, and are formed of small panes of brightly-stained glass set in rims of gypsum-plaster, the whole framed in wood. Here the allusion is to the "Mamrak" or dome-shaped skylight crowning the room. See vol. viii. 156.

 [FN#89] i.e. easily arrested them.

 [FN#90] The reader will not forget the half-penitent Captain of Bandits in Gil Blas.

 [FN#91] Arab. "Abtál"=champions, athletes, etc., plur. of Batal, a brave: so Batalat=a virago. As the root Batala=it was vain, the form "Battál" may mean either a hero or a bad lot: see vol. viii. 335; x. 72,73.

 [FN#92] Arab. "Fityán;" plur. of FatB; see vol. i, 67.

 [FN#93] This was in popular parlance "adding insult to injury:" the blackening their faces was a promise of Hell-fire.

 [FN#94] Arab. "Shayyan li 'lláh!" lit.=(Give me some) Thing for (the love of) Allah. The answer in Egypt. is "Allah ya'tík:"=Allah will give it thee (not I), or, "Yaftah 'Allah,"= Allah open (to thee the door of subsistence): in Marocco "Sir fí hálik" (pron. Sirf hák)= Go about thy business. In all cities there is a formula which suffices the asker; but the Ghashím (Johny Raw) who ignores it, is pestered only the more by his protestations that "he left his purse at home," etc.

 [FN#95] i.e. engaged her for a revel and paid her in advance.

 [FN#96] Arab. "Rasílah"=a (she) partner, to accompany her on the lute.

 [FN#97] Suggesting that they are all thieves who had undergone legal mutilation.

 [FN#98] Arab. "Nuzhat-í:" see vol. ii. 81.

 [FN#99] Arab. "Muhattakát;" usually "with torn veils" (fem. plur.) here "without veils," metaphor. meaning in disgrace, in dishonour.

 [FN#100] For this reedy Poa, see vol. ii. 18.

 [FN#101] I have repeatedly noticed that singing and all music are, in religious parlance, "Makruh," blameable though not actually damnable; and that the first step after "getting religion" is to forswear them.

 [FN#102] i.e. to find the thief or make good the loss.

 [FN#103] i.e. the claimants.

 [FN#104] Arab. "Sakiyah:" see vol. i. 123.

 [FN#105] The lower orders of Egypt and Syria are addicted to this bear-like attack; so the negroes imitate fighting-rams by butting with their stony heads. Let me remark that when Herodotus (iii. 12), after Psammenitus' battle of Pelusium in B.C. 524, made the remark that the Egyptian crania were hardened by shaving and insolation and the Persians were softened by wearing head-cloths, he tripped in his anthropology. The Iranian skull is naturally thin compared with that of the negroid Egyptian and the negro.

 [FN#106] Arab. "Farkalah," nkáãÝëëéïí from flagellum; cattle-whip with leathern thongs. Lane, M.E.; Fleischer Glos. 83-84; Dozy s.v.

 [FN#107] This clause is supplied to make sense.

 [FN#108] i.e. to crucify him by nailing him to an upright board.

 [FN#109] i.e. a native of the Hauran, Job's country east of Damascus, now a luxuriant waste, haunted only by the plundering Badawin and the Druzes of the hills, who are no better; but its stretches of ruins and league-long swathes of stone over which the vine was trained, show what it has been and what it will be again when the incubus of Turkish mis-rule shall be removed from it. Herr Schuhmacher has lately noted in the Hauran sundry Arab traditions of Job; the village Nawá, where he lived; the Hammam 'Ayyub, where he washed his leprous skin; the Dayr Ayyub, a monastery said to date from the third century; and the Makan Ayyub at Al-Markáz, where the semi-mythical patriarch and his wife are buried. The "Rock of Job", covered by a mosque, is a basaltic monolith 7 feet high by 4, and is probably connected with the solar worship of the old PhÉnicians.

 [FN#110] This habit "torquere mero," was a favourite with the mediFval Arabs. Its effect varies greatly with men's characters, making some open-hearted and communicative, and others more cunning and secretive than in the normal state. So far it is an excellent detection of disposition, and many a man passes off well when sober who has shown himself in liquor a rank snob. Among the lower orders it provokes what the Persians call Bad-mastí (le vin méchant) see Pilgrimage iii. 385.

 [FN#111] This mystery is not unfamiliar to the modern "spiritualist;" and all Eastern tongues have a special term for the mysterious Voice. See vol. i. 142.

 [FN#112] Arab. "Alaykum:" addressed to a single person. This is generally explained by the "Salam" reaching the ears of Invisible Controls, and even the Apostle. We find the words cruelly distorted in the Pentamerone of Giambattista Basile (partly translated by John E. Taylor, London: Bogue, 1848), "The Prince, coming up to the old woman heard an hundred Licasalemme," p. 383.

 [FN#113] Arab. "Al-Zalamah"; the policeman; see vol. vi. 214.

 [FN#114] i.e. in my punishment.

 [FN#115] i.e. on Doomsday thou shalt get thy deserts.

 [FN#116] i.e. what I could well afford.

 [FN#117] Arab. Hirfah=a trade, a guild, a corporation: here the officers of police.

 [FN#118] Gen. "tip-cat" (vol. ii. 314.) Here it would mean a rude form of tables or backgammon, in which the players who throw certain numbers are dubbed Sultan and Wazir, and demean themselves accordingly. A favourite bit of fun with Cairene boys of a past generation was to "make a Pasha;" and for this proceeding, see Pilgrimage, vol. i. 119.

 [FN#119] In Marocco there is great difficulty about finding an executioner who becomes obnoxious to the Thár, vendetta or blood-revenge. For salting the criminal's head, however, the soldiers seize upon the nearest Jew and compel him to clean out the brain and to prepare it for what is often a long journey. Hence, according to some, the local name of the Ghetto, Al-Malláh,=the salting-ground.

 [FN#120] Mr. Payne suspects that "laban," milk, esp. artificially soured (see vol. vi, 201), is a clerical error for "jubn"=cheese. This may be; but I follow the text as the exaggeration is greater

 [FN#121] i.e. in relinquishing his blood-wite for his brother.

 [FN#122] The Story-teller, probably to relieve the monotony of the Constables' histories, here returns to the original cadre. We must not forget that in the Bresl. Edit. the Nights are running on, and that the charming queen is relating the adventure of Al-Malik al-Zahir.

 [FN#123] Arab. "Za'amu"=they opine, they declare, a favourite term with the Bresl. Edit.

 [FN#124] Arab. "Zirtah" the coarsest of terms for what the French nuns prettily termed un sonnet; I find ung sonnet also in Nov. ii. of the Cent nouvelles Nouvelles. Captain Lockett (p. 32) quotes Strepsiades in The Clouds âkïíô iïìéä¬ ðáððÜî "because he cannot express the bathos of the original (in the Tale of Ja'afar and the old Badawi) without descending to the oracular language of Giacoma Rodogina, the engastrymythian prophetess." But Sterne was by no means so squeamish. The literature of this subject is extensive, beginning with "Peteriana, ou l'art de peter," which distinguishes 62 different tones. After dining with a late friend en garcon we went into his sitting-room and found on the table 13 books and booklets upon the Crepitus Ventris, and there was some astonishment as not a few of the party had never seen one.

 [FN#125] This tale is a replica of the Cranes of Ibycus. This was a Rhegium man who when returning to Corinth, his home, was set upon by robbers and slain. He cast his dying eyes heavenwards and seeing a flight of cranes called upon them to avenge him and this they did by flying over the theatre of Corinth on a day when the murderers were present and one cried out, "Behold the avengers of Ibycus!" Whereupon they were taken and put to death. So says Paulus Hieronymus, and the affecting old tale has newly been sung in charming verse by Mr. Justin H. McCarthy ("Serapion." London: Chatto and Windus).

 [FN#126] This scene is perfectly true to Badawi life; see my Pilgrimage iii. 68.

 [FN#127] Arab. "Durráj": so it is rendered in the French translation of Al-Masudi, vii. 347.

 [FN#128] A fair friend found the idea of Destiny in The Nights become almost a night-mare. Yet here we suddenly alight upon the true Johnsonian idea that conduct makes fate. Both extremes are as usual false. When one man fights a dozen battles unwounded and another falls at the first shot we cannot but acknowledge the presence of that mysterious "luck" whose laws, now utterly unknown to us, may become familiar with the ages. I may note that the idea of an appointed hour beyond which life may not be prolonged, is as old as Homer (Il. ??? 487).

The reader has been told (vol. vii. 135) that "Kazá" is Fate in a general sense, the universal and eternal Decree of Allah, while "Kadar" is its special and particular application to man's lot, that is Allah's will in bringing forth events at a certain time and place. But the former is popularly held to be of two categories, one Kazá al-Muham which admits of modification and Kazá al-Muhkam, absolute and unchangeable, the doctrine of irresistible predestination preached with so much energy by St. Paul (Romans ix. 15-24), and all the world over men act upon the former while theoretically holding to the latter. Hence "Chinese Gordon,” whose loss to England is greater than even his friends suppose, wrote "It is a delightful thing to be a fatalist," meaning that the Divine direction and pre-ordination of all things saved him so much trouble of forethought and afterthought. In this tenet he was not only a Calvinist but also a Moslem whose contradictory ideas of Fate and Freewill (with responsibility) are not only beyond Reason but are contrary to Reason; and although we may admit the argumentum ad verecundiam, suggesting that there are things above (or below) human intelligence, we are not bound so to do in the case of things which are opposed to the common sense of mankind. Practically, however, the Moslem attitude is to be loud in confessing belief of "Fate and Fortune" before an event happens and after it wisely to console himself with the conviction that in no way could he have escaped the occurrence. And the belief that this destiny was in the hands of Allah gives him a certain dignity especially in the presence of disease and death which is wanting in his rival religionist the Christian. At the same time the fanciful picture of the Turk sitting stolidly under a shower of bullets because Fate will not find him out unless it be so written is a freak i.e. fancy rarely found in real life.

There are four great points of dispute amongst the schoolmen in Al-Islam; (1) the Unity and Attributes of Allah, (2) His promises and threats, (3) historical as the office of Imám and (4) Predestination and the justice thereof. On the latter subject opinions range over the whole cycle of possibilities. For instance, the Mu'tazilites, whom the learned Weil makes the Protestants and Rationalists of Al-Islam, contend that the word of Allah was created in subjecto, ergo, an accident and liable to perish, and one of their school, the Kádiriyah (=having power) denies the existence of Fate and contends that Allah did not create evil but left man an absolutely free agent. On the other hand, the Jabarlyah (or Mujabbar=the compelled) is an absolute Fatalist who believes in the omnipotence of Destiny and deems that all wisdom consists in conforming with its decrees. Al-Mas'udi (chaps. cxxvii.) illustrates this by the saying of a Moslem philosopher that chess was the invention of a Mu'tazil, while Nard (backgammon with dice) was that of a Mujabbar proving that play can do nothing against Destiny. Between the two are the Ashariyah; trimmers whose standpoint is hard to define; they would say, "Allah creates the power by which man acts, but man wills the action," and care not to answer the query, "Who created the will ?" (See Pocock, Sale and the Dabistan ii. 352.) Thus Sa'adi says in the Gulistan (iii. 2), "The wise have pronounced that though daily bread be allotted, yet it is so conditionally upon using means to acquire it, and although calamity be predestined, yet it is right to secure oneself against the portals by which it may have access." Lastly, not a few doctors of Law and Religion hold that Kaza al-Muhkam, however absolute, regards only man's after or final state; and upon this subject they are of course as wise as other people, and--no wiser. Lane has treated the Moslem faith in Destiny very ably and fully (Arabian Nights, vol. i. pp. 58-61), and he being a man of moderate and orthodox views gives valuable testimony.

 [FN#129] Arab. “Shaykh al-Hujjáj.” Some Santon like Hasan al-Marábit, then invoked by the Meccan pilgrims: see Pilgrimage, i. 321. It can hardly refer to the famous Hajjáj bin Yúsuf al-Sakafí (vol. iv. 3).

 [FN#130] Here the Stories of the Sixteen Constables abruptly end, after the fashion of the Bresl. Edit. They are summarily dismissed even without the normal “Bakhshísh.”

 [FN#131] Bresl. Edit. vol xi. pp. 400-473 and vol. xii. pp. 4-50, Nights dccccxli.-dcccclvii. For Kashghar, see vol. i. 255.

 [FN#132] Mr. Payne proposes to translate "'Anbar" by amber, the semi-fossilised resin much used in modern days, especially in Turkey and Somaliland, for bead necklaces. But, as he says, the second line distinctly alludes to the perfume which is sewn in leather and hung about the neck, after the fashion of our ancient pomanders (pomme d' ambre).

 [FN#133] i.e. The Caliph: see vol. i. p. 50.

 [FN#134] Arab. "Adab :" see vol. i. 132, etc. In Moslem dialects which borrow more or less from Arabic, "Bí-adabí"--without being Adab, means rudeness, disrespect, "impertinence" (in its modern sense).

 [FN#135] i.e. Isaac of Mosul, the greatest of Arab musicians: see vol. iv. 119.

 [FN#136] The elder brother of Ja'afar, by no means so genial or fitted for a royal frolic. See Terminal Essay.

 [FN#137] Ibn Habíb, a friend of Isaac, and a learned grammarian who lectured at Basrah.

 [FN#138] A suburb of Baghdad, mentioned by Al Mas'údi.

 [FN#139] Containing the rooms in which the girl or girls were sold. See Pilgrimage i. 87.

 [FN#140] Dozy quotes this passage but cannot explain the word Fawwák.

 [FN#141] "A passage has apparently dropped out here. The Khalif seems to have gone away without buying, leaving Ishak behind, whereupon the latter was accosted by another slave-girl, who came out of a cell in the corridor." So says Mr. Payne. vol. ii. 207. The "raiser of the veil" means a fitting purchaser.

 [FN#142] i.e. "Choice gift of the Fools," a skit upon the girl's name "Tohfat al-Kulúb"=Choice gift of the Hearts. Her folly consisted in refusing to be sold at a high price, and this is often seen in real life. It is a Pundonor amongst good Moslems not to buy a girl and not to sleep with her, even when bought, against her will.

 [FN#143] "Every one cannot go to Corinth." The question makes the assertion emphatic.

 [FN#144] i.e. The Narrows of the (Dervishes') convent.

 [FN#145] Arab. "AkwB min dahni 'l-lanz." These unguents have been used in the East from time immemorial whilst the last generation in England knew nothing of anointing with oil for incipient consumption. A late friend of mine, Dr. Stocks of the Bombay Establishment, and I proposed it as long back as 1845; but in those days it was a far cry from Sind to London.

 [FN#146] The sequel will explain why she acted in this way.

 [FN#147] i.e. Thou hast made my gold piece (10 shill.) worth only a doit by thy superiority in the art and mystery of music.

 [FN#148] Arab. "Uaddíki," Taadiyah (iid. of Adá, he assisted) means sending, forwarding. In Egypt and Syria we often find the form "Waddi" for Addi, imperative.

 [FN#149] Again "he" for "she".

 [FN#150] i.e. Honey and wine.

 [FN#151] i.e. he died.

 [FN#152] i.e. if my hand had lost its cunning.

 [FN#153] Arab. "Thiyáb 'Amúdiyah": 'Amud=tent prop or column, and Khatt 'Amúd=a perpendicular line.

 [FN#154] i.e. a choice gift. The Caliph speaks half ironically. "Where's this wonderful present etc?" So further on when he compares her with the morning.

 [FN#155] Again the usual pun upon the name.

 [FN#156] Throughout the East this is the action of a servant or a slave, practised by freemen only when in danger of life or extreme need an i therefore humiliating.

 [FN#157] It had been thrown down from the Mamrak or small dome built over such pavilions for the purpose of light by day and ventilation by night. See vol. i. 257, where it is called by the Persian term "Badhánj."

 [FN#158] The Nights have more than once applied this patronymic to Zubaydah. See vol. viii. 56, 158.

 [FN#159] Arab. "Mutahaddisín"=novi homines, upstarts.

 [FN#160] i.e.. thine auspicious visits.

 [FN#161] He being seated on the carpet at the time.

 [FN#162] A quotation from Al-Farazdat who had quarrelled with his wife Al-Howár (see the tale in Ibn Khallikan, i. 521), hence "the naked intercessor" became proverbial for one who cannot be withstood.

 [FN#163] i.e. Choice Gift of the Breasts, that is of hearts, the continens for the contentum.

 [FN#164] Pron. "Abuttawáif," the Father of the (Jinn-)tribes. It is one of the Moslem Satan's manifold names, alluding to the number of his servants and worshippers, so far agreeing with that amiable Christian doctrine, "Few shall be saved."

 [FN#165] Mr. Payne supplies this last clause from the sequence.

 [FN#166] i.e. "Let us go," with a euphemistic formula to defend her from evil influences. Iblis uses the same word to prevent her being frightened.

 [FN#167] Arab. "Al-Mustaráh," a favourite haunting place of the Jinn, like the Hammám and other offices for human impurity. For its six names Al-Khalá, Al-Hushsh, Al-Mutawazzá, Al-Kaníf, Al-Mustaráh, and Mirház, see Al-Mas'udi, chap. cxxvii., and Shiríshi's commentary to Hariri's 47, Assembly.

 [FN#168] Which, in the East, is high and prominent whilst the cantle forms a back to the seat and the rider sits as in a baby's chair. The object is a firm seat when fighting: "across country" it is exceedingly dangerous.

 [FN#169] In Swedenborg's "Arcane CÉlestia" we read, "When man's inner sight is opened which is that of kits spirit; then there appear the things of another life which cannot be made visible to the bodily sight." Also "Evil spirits, when seen by eyes other than those of their infernal associates, present themselves by correspondence in the beast (fera) which represents their particular lust and life, in aspect direful and atrocious." These are the Jinns of Northern Europe.

 [FN#170] This exchange of salams was a sign of her being in safety.

 [FN#171] Arab. "Shawáhid," meaning that heart testifies to heart.

 [FN#172] i.e. A live coal, afterwards called Zalzalah, an earthquake; see post p. 76. "Wakhímah"=an unhealthy land, and "Sharárah"=a spark.

 [FN#173] I need hardly note the inscriptions upon the metal trays sold to Europeans. They are usually imitation words so that infidel eyes may not look upon the formulF of prayer; and the same is the case with table-cloths, etc., showing a fancy Tohgra or Sultanic sign-manual.

 [FN#174] i.e.. I cannot look at them long.

 [FN#175] Evidently a diabolical way of clapping his hands in applause. This description of the Foul Fiend has an element of grotesqueness which is rather Christian than Moslem.

 [FN#176] Arab. "Rikkí al-Saut," which may also mean either "lower thy voice," or "change the air to one less touching."

 [FN#177] "Your" for "thy."

 [FN#178] i.e. written on the "Guarded Tablet" from all eternity.

 [FN#179] Arab. "Al-'Urs wa'al Tubúr" which can only mean, 'the wedding (which does not drop out of the tale) and the circumcision."

 [FN#180] I here propose to consider at some length this curious custom which has prevailed amongst so many widely separated races. Its object has been noted (vol. v. 209), viz. to diminish the sensibility of the glans, no longer lubricated with prostatic lymph; thus the part is hardened against injury and disease and its work in coition is prolonged. On the other hand, "prFputium in coitu voluptatem (of the woman) auget, unde femina prFputiatis concubitum malunt quam cum Turcis ac JudFis " says Dimerbroeck (Anatomic). I vehemently doubt the fact. Circumcision was doubtless practised from ages immemorial by the peoples of Central Africa, and Welcker found traces of it in a mummy of the xvith century B.C. The Jews borrowed it from the Egyptian priesthood and made it a manner of sacrament, "uncircumcised" being="unbaptised," that is, barbarian, heretic; it was a seal of reconciliation, a sign of alliance between the Creator and the Chosen People, a token of nationality imposed upon the body politic. Thus it became a cruel and odious protestation against the brotherhood of man, and the cosmopolitan Romans derided the verpF ac verpi. The Jews also used the term figuratively as the "circumcision of fruits" (Lev. xix. 23), and of the heart (Deut. x. 16), and the old law gives copious historical details of its origin and continuance. Abraham first amputated his horny "calotte" at aet. 99, and did the same for his son and household (Gen. xvii. 24-27). The rite caused a separation between Moses and his wife (Exod. iv. 25). It was suspended during the Desert Wanderings and was resumed by Joshua (v. 3-7), who cut off two tons' weight of prepuces. The latter became, like the scalps of the Scythians and the North-American "Indians" trophies of victory; Saul promised his daughter Michol to David for a dowry of one hundred, and the son-in-law brought double tale.

Amongst the early Christians opinions concerning the rite differed. Although the Founder of Christianity was circumcised, St. Paul, who aimed at a cosmopolitan faith discouraged it in the physical phase. St. Augustine still sustained that the rite removed original sin despite the Fathers who preceded and followed him, Justus, Tertullian, Ambrose and others. But it gradually lapsed into desuetude and was preserved only in the outlying regions. Paulus Jovius and Munster found it practised in Abyssinia, but as a mark of nobility confined to the descendants of "Nicaules, queen of Sheba." The Abyssinians still follow the Jews in performing the rite within eight days after the birth and baptise boys after forty and girls after eighty days. When a circumcised man became a Jew he was bled before three witnesses at the place where the prepuce had been cut off and this was called the "Blood of alliance." Apostate Jews effaced the sing of circumcision: so in 1 Matt. i. 16, fecerunt sibi prFputia et recesserunt a Testamento Sancto. Thus making prepuces was called by the Hebrews Meshookim=recutitis, and there is an allusion to it in 1 Cor. vii. 18, 19, ì¬ ¥ðéóðÜóháé (Farrar, Paul ii. 70). St. Jerome and others deny the possibility; but Mirabeau (Akropodie) relates how Father Conning by liniments of oil, suspending weights, and wearing the virga in a box gained in 43 days 7¼ lines. The process is still practiced by Armenians and other Christians who, compelled to Islamise, wish to return to Christianity. I cannot however find a similar artifice applied to a circumcised clitoris. The simplest form of circumcision is mere amputation of the prepuce and I have noted (vol. v. 209) the difference between the Moslem and the Jewish rite, the latter according to some being supposed to heal in kindlier way. But the varieties of circumcision are immense. Probably none is more terrible than that practiced in the Province Al-Asír, the old Ophir, Iying south of Al-Hijáz, where it is called Salkh, lit.=scarification The patient, usually from ten to twelve years old, is placed upon raised ground holding m right hand a spear, whose heel rests upon his foot and whose point shows every tremour of the nerves. The tribe stands about him to pass judgment on his fortitude and the barber performs the operation with the Jumbiyah-dagger, sharp as a razor. First he makes a shallow cut, severing only the skin across the belly immediately below the navel, and similar incisions down each groin; then he tears off the epidermis from the cuts downwards and flays the testicles and the penis, ending with amputation of the foreskin. Meanwhile the spear must not tremble and in some clans the lad holds a dagger over the back of the stooping barber, crying, "Cut and fear not!" When the ordeal is over, he exclaims, "Allaho Akbar!" and attempts to walk towards the tents soon falling for pain and nervous exhaustion, but the more steps he takes the more applause he gains. He is dieted with camel's milk, the wound is treated with salt and turmeric, and the chances in his favour are about ten to one. No body-pile or pecten ever grows upon the excoriated part which preserves through life a livid ashen hue. Whilst Mohammed Ali Pasha occupied the province he forbade "scarification" under pain of impalement, but it was resumed the moment he left Al-Asir. In Africa not only is circumcision indigenous, the operation varies more or less in the different tribes. In Dahome it is termed Addagwibi, and is performed between the twelfth and twentieth year. The rough operation is made peculiar by a double cut above and below; the prepuce being treated in the Moslem, not the Jewish fashion (loc. cit.). Heated sand is applied as a styptic and the patient is dieted with ginger-soup and warm drinks of ginger-water, pork being especially forbidden. The Fantis of the Gold Coast circumcise in sacred places, e.g., at Accra on a Fetish rock rising from the sea The peoples of Sennaar, Taka, Masawwah and the adjacent regions follow the Abyssinian custom. The barbarous Bissagos and Fellups of North Western Guinea make cuts on the prepuce without amputating it; while the Baquens and Papels circumcise like Moslems. The blacks of Loango are all "verpF," otherwise they would be rejected by the women. The Bantu or Caffre tribes are circumcised between the ages of fifteen and eighteen, the "Fetish boys," as we call them, are chalked white and wear only grass belts; they live outside the villages in special houses under an old "medicine-man," who teaches them not only virile arts but also to rob and fight. The "man-making" may last five months and ends in fLtes and dances: the patients are washed in the river, they burn down their quarters, take new names, and become adults, donning a kind of straw thimble over the prepuce. In Madagascar three several cuts are made causing much suffering to the children, and the nearest male relative swallows the prepuce. The Polynesians circumcise when childhood ends and thus consecrate the fecundating organ to the Deity. In Tahiti the operation is performed by the priest, and in Tonga only the priest is exempt. The Maories on the other hand, fasten the prepuce over the glans, and the women of the Marquesas Islands have shown great cruelty to shipwrecked sailors who expose the glans. Almost all the known Australian tribes circumcise after some fashion: Bennett supposes the rite to have been borrowed from the Malays, while Gason enumerates the "Kurrawellie wonkauna among the five mutilations of puberty. Leichhardt found circumcision about the Gulf of Carpentaria and in the river-valleys of the Robinson and Macarthur: others observed it on the Southern Coast a nd among the savages of Perth, where it is noticed by Salvado. James Dawson tells us "Circumciduntur pueri," etc., in Western Victoria. Brough Smyth, who supposes the object is to limit population (?), describes on the Western Coast and in Central Australia the "Corrobery"-dance and the operation performed with a quartz-flake. Teichelmann details the rite in Southern Australia where the assistants--all men, women, and children being driven away--form a "manner of human altar" upon which the youth is laid for circumcision. He then receives the normal two names, public and secret, and is initiated into the mysteries proper for men. The Australians also for Malthusian reasons produce an artificial hypospadias, while the Karens of New Guinea only split the prepuce longitudinally (Cosmos p. 369, Oct. 1876); the indigens of Port Lincoln on the West Coast split the virga:--Fenditur usque ad urethram a parse infera penis between the ages of twelve and fourteen, says E. J. Eyre in 1845. Missionary Schurmann declares that they open the urethra. Gason describes in the Dieyerie tribe the operation 'Kulpi" which is performed when the beard is long enough for tying. The member is placed upon a slab of tree-bark, the urethra is incised with a quartz-flake mounted in a gum handle and a splinter of bark is inserted to keep the cut open. These men may appear naked before women who expect others to clothe themselves. Miklucho Maclay calls it "Mike" in Central Australia: he was told by a squatter that of three hundred men only three or four had the member intact in order to get children, and that in one tribe the female births greatly outnumbered the male. Those mutilated also marry: when making water they sit like women slightly raising the penis, this in coition becomes flat and broad and the semen does not enter the matrix. The explorer believes that the deed of kind is more quickly done (?). Circumcision was also known to the New World. Herrera relates that certain Mexicans cut off the ears and prepuce of the newly born child, causing many to die. The Jews did not adopt the female circumcision of Egypt described by Huet on Origen--"Circumcisio feminarum fit resectione ô­ò íõìò (sive clitoridis) quF pars in Australium mulieribus ita crescit ut ferro est coërcenda." Here we have the normal confusion between excision of the nymphF (usually for fibulation) and circumcision of the clitoris. Bruce notices this clitoridectomy among the Aybssinians. Werne describes the excision on the Upper White Nile and I have noted the complicated operation among the Somali tribes. Girls in Dahome are circumcised by ancient sages femmes, and a woman in the natural state would be derided by every one (See my Mission to Dahome, ii. 159) The Australians cut out the clitoris, and as I have noted elsewhere extirpate the ovary for Malthusian purposes (Journ Anthrop. Inst., vol. viii. of 1884).

 [FN#181] Arab. "Kayrawán" which is still the common name for curlew, the peewit and plover being called (onomatopoetically) "Bibat" and in Marocco Yahúdi, certain impious Jews having been turned into the Vanellus Cristatus which still wears the black skullcap of the

 [FN#182] Arab. “Sawáki," the leats which irrigate the ground and are opened and closed with

 [FN#183] The eighth (in altitude) of the many-storied Heavens.

 [FN#184] Arab. "Ihramat li al-Salát,"i.e., she pronounced the formula of Intention (Niyat) with out which prayer is not valid, ending with Allaho Akbar--Allah is All-great. Thus she had clothed herself, as it were, in prayer and had retired from the world pro temp.

 [FN#185] i.e.. the prayers of the last day and night which she had neglected while in company with the Jinns. The Hammam is not a pure place to pray in; but the Farz or Koranic orisons should be recited there if the legal term be hard upon its end.

 [FN#186] Slaves, male as well as female, are as fond of talking over their sale as European dames enjoy looking back upon the details of courtship and marriage.

 [FN#187] Arab. "Du'á,"=supplication, prayer, as opposed to 'Salát"=divine worship, "prayers" For the technical meaning of the latter see vol. iv. 65. I have objected to Mr. Redhouse's distinction without a difference between Moslem's worship and prayer: voluntary prayers: are not prohibited to them and their praises of the Lord are mingled, as amongst all worshippers, with petitions.

 [FN#188] Al-Muzfir=the Twister; Zafáir al-Jinn=Adiantum capillus veneris Lúlúah=The Pearl, or Wild Heifer; see vol. ix. 218.

 [FN#189] Arab. "Bi jildi 'l-baker." I hope that captious critics will not find fault with my rendering, as they did in the case of Fals ahmar=a red cent, vol. i. 321.

 [FN#190] Arab. "Farásah"=lit. knowing a horse. Arabia abounds in tales illustrating abnormal powers of observation. I have noted this in vol. viii. 326.

 [FN#191] i.e. the owner of this palace.

 [FN#192] She made the Ghusl not because she had slept with a man, but because the impurity of Satan's presence called for the major ablution before prayer.

 [FN#193] i.e. she conjoined the prayers of nightfall with those of dawn.

 [FN#194] i.e.. Those of midday, mid-afternoon and sunset.

 [FN#195] Arab. "Sahbá" red wine preferred for the morning draught.

 [FN#196] The Apostle who delighted in women and perfumes. Persian poetry often alludes to the rose which, before white, was dyed red by his sweat.

 [FN#197] For the etymology of Julnár--Byron's "Gulnare"--see vol. vii. 268. Here the rhymer seems to refer to its origin; Gul (Arab. Jul) in Persian a rose; and Anár, a pomegranate, which in Arabic becomes Nár=fire.

 [FN#198] i.e. "The brilliant," the enlightened.

 [FN#199] i.e.. the moral beauty.

 [FN#200] A phenomenon well known to spiritualists and to "The House and the Haunter." An old Dutch factory near Hungarian Fiume is famed for this mode of "obsession" the inmates hear the sound of footfalls, etc., behind them, especially upon the stairs; and see nothing.

 [FN#201] The two short Koranic chapters, The Daybreak (cxiii.) and The Men (cxiv. and last) evidently so called from the words which occur in both (versets i., "I take refuge with"). These "Ma'úzatáni," as they are called, are recited as talismans or preventives against evil, and are worn as amulets inscribed on parchment; they are also often used in the five canonical prayers. I have translated them in vol. iii. 222.

 [FN#202] The artistes or fugleman at prayer who leads off the orisons of the congregation; and applied to the Caliph as the head of the faith. See vol. ii. 203 and iv. 111.

 [FN#203] Arab. " 'Ummár" i.e. the Jinn, the "spiritual creatures" which walk this earth, and other non-humans who occupy it.

 [FN#204] A parallel to this bodiless Head is the Giant Face, which appears to travellers (who expect it) in the Lower Valley of the Indus. See Sind Re-visited, ii. 155.

 [FN#205] Arab. "Ghalílí"=my yearning.

 [FN#206] Arab. “Ahbábu-ná” plur. for singular=my beloved.

 [FN#207] i.e. her return.

 [FN#208] Arab. "Arja'" lit. return! but here meaning to stop. It is much used by donkey-boys from Cairo to Fez in the sense of "Get out of the way." Hence the Spanish arre! which gave rise to arriero=a carrier, a muleteer.

 [FN#209] Arab. "Afras" lit.=a better horseman.

 [FN#210] A somewhat crippled quotation from Koran lvi. 87-88, "As for him who is of those brought near unto Allah, there shall be for him easance and basil and a Garden of Delights (Na'ím)."

 [FN#211] i.e. Queen Sunbeam.

 [FN#212] See vol. i. 310 for this compound perfume which contains musk, ambergris and other essences.

 [FN#213] I can hardly see the sequence of this or what the carpets have to do here.

 [FN#214] Here, as before, some insertion has been found necessary.

 [FN#215] Arab. "Dukhúlak" lit.=thy entering, entrance, becoming familiar.

 [FN#216] Or "And in this there shall be to thee great honour over all the Jinn."

 [FN#217] Mr. Payne thus amends the text, "How loathly is yonder Genie Meimoun! There is no eating (in his presence);" referring back to p. 61.

 [FN#218] i.e. "I cannot bear to see him!"

 [FN#219] This assertion of dignity, which is permissible in royalty, has been absurdly affected by certain "dames" in Anglo-Egypt who are quite the reverse of queenly; and who degrade "dignity" to the vulgarest affectation.

 [FN#220] i.e. "May thy visits never fail me!"

 [FN#221] i.e. Ash-coloured, verging upon white.

 [FN#222] i.e. "She will double thy store of presents."

 [FN#223] The Arab boy who, unlike the Jew, is circumcised long after infancy and often in his teens, thus making the ceremony conform after a fashion with our "Confirmation," is displayed before being operated upon, to family and friends; and the seat is a couch covered with the richest tapestry. So far it resembles the bride-throne.

 [FN#224] Tohfah.

 [FN#225] i.e. Hindu, Indian.

 [FN#226] Japhet, son of Noah.

 [FN#227] Mr. Payne translates "Take this and glorify thyself withal over the people of the world." His reading certainly makes better sense, but I do not see how the text can carry the meaning. He also omits the bussing of the bosom, probably for artistic reasons.

 [FN#228] A skit at Ishák, making the Devil praise him. See vol. vii. 113.

 [FN#229] Arab. "Mawázi" (plur. of Mauza')=lit. places, shifts, passages.

 [FN#230] The bed (farsh), is I presume, the straw-spread (?) store-room where the apples are preserved.

 [FN#231] Arab. "Farkh warak", which sounds like an atrocious vulgarism.

 [FN#232] The Moss-rose; also the eglantine, or dog-rose, and the sweet-briar, whose leaf, unlike other roses, is so odorous.

 [FN#233] The lily in Heb., derived by some from its six (shash) leaves, and by others from its vivid cheerful brightness. "His lips are lilies" (Cant. v. 13), not in colour, but in odoriferous sweetness.

 [FN#234] The barber is now the usual operator; but all operations began in Europe with the "barber-surgeon."

 [FN#235] Sic in text xii. 20. It may be a misprint for Abú al-Tawaif, but it can also mean "O Shaykh of the Tribes (of Jinns)!"

 [FN#236] The capital of King Al-Shisban.

 [FN#237] Arab "Fajj", the Spanish "Vega" which, however, means a mountain-plain, a plain.

 [FN#238] i.e. I am quite sure: emphatically.

 [FN#239] i.e. all the Jinn's professions of affection and promises of protection were mere lies.

 [FN#240] In the original this apodosis is wanting: see vol. vi. 203, 239.

 [FN#241] Arab. "Dáhiyat al-Dawáhí;" see vol. ii. 87.

 [FN#242] Arab. "Al-Jabal al-Mukawwar"= Chaîne de montagnes de forme demi circulaire, from Kaur, a park, an enceinte.

 [FN#243] Arab. "Rúhí" lit. my breath, the outward sign of life.

 [FN#244] i.e. Káf.

 [FN#245] i.e. A bit of burning charcoal.

 [FN#246] Arab. "Al-yad al-bayzá,"=lit. The white hand: see vol. iv. 185.

 [FN#247] Showing the antiquity of "AprPs moi le déluge," the fame of all old politicians and aged statesmen who can expect but a few years of life. These "burning questions" (e.g. the Bulgarian) may be smothered for a time, but the result is that they blaze forth with increased violence. We have to thank Lord Palmerston (an Irish landlord) for ignoring the growth of Fenianism and another aged statesman for a sturdy attempt to disunite the United Kingdom. An old nation wants young blood at its head.

 [FN#248] Suggesting the nursery rhyme:

        Fee, fo, fum
        I smell the blood of an Englishman.

 [FN#249] i.e. why not at once make an end of her.

 [FN#250] The well-known war-cry.

 [FN#251] Lit. "Smoke" pop. applied, like our word, to tobacco. The latter, however, is not here meant.

 [FN#252] Arab. "Ghuráb al-bayn," of the wold or of parting. See vol. vii. 226.

 [FN#253] Arab. "Haláwah"; see vol. iv. 60.

 [FN#254] Here the vocative particle "Yá" is omitted.

 [FN#255] Lit. "The long-necked (bird)" before noticed with the Rukh (Roc) in vol. v. 122. Here it becomes a Princess, daughter of Bahrám-i-Gúr (Bahram of the Onager, his favourite game), the famous Persian king in the fifth century, a contemporary of Theodosius the younger and Honorius. The "Anká" is evidently the Iranian Símurgh.

 [FN#256] "Chamber" is becoming a dangerous word in English. Roars of laughter from the gods greeted the great actor's declamation, "The bed has not been slept in! Her little chamber is empty!"

 [FN#257] Choice Gift of the breast (or heart).

 [FN#258] From the Calc. Edit. (1814–18), Nights cxcvi.–cc., vol. ii., pp. 367–378. The translation has been compared and collated with that of LanglPs (Paris, 1814), appended to his Edition of the Voyages of Sindbad. The story is exceedingly clever and well deserves translation.

 [FN#259] It is regretable that this formula has not been preserved throughout The Nights: it affords, I have noticed, a pleasing break to the long course of narrative.

 [FN#260] Arab. “Banát-al-hawá” lit. daughters of love, usually meaning an Anonyma, a fille de joie; but here the girl is of good repute, and the offensive term must be modified to a gay, frolicsome lass.

 [FN#261] Arab. “Jabhat,” the lintel opposed to the threshold.

 [FN#262] Arab. “Ghattí,” still the popular term said to a child showing its nakedness, or a lady of pleasure who insults a man by displaying any part of her person.

 [FN#263] She is compared with a flashing blade (her face) now drawn from its sheath (her hair) then hidden by it.

 [FN#264] The “Muajjalah” or money paid down before consummation was about £25; and the “Mu’ajjalah” or coin to be paid contingent on divorce was about £75. In the Calc. Edit ii. 371, both dowers are £35.

 [FN#265] All the blemishes which justify returning a slave to the slave-dealer.

 [FN#266] Media: see vol. ii. 94. The “Daylamite prison” was one of many in Baghdad.

 [FN#267] See vol. v. 199. I may remark that the practice of bathing after copulation was kept up by both sexes in ancient Rome. The custom may have originated in days when human senses were more acute. I have seen an Arab horse object to be mounted by the master when the latter had not washed after sleeping with a woman.

 [FN#268] On the morning after a happy night the bridegroom still offers coffee and Halwá to friends.

 [FN#269] i.e. More bewitching.

 [FN#270] Arab. “Sharífí” more usually Ashrafi, the Port. Xerafim, a gold coin = 6s.–7s.

 [FN#271] The oft-repeated Koranic quotation.

 [FN#272] Arab. “’Irk”: our phrase is “the apple of the eye.”

 [FN#273] Meaning that he was a Sayyid or a Sharíf.

 [FN#274] i.e. than a Jew or a Christian. So the Sultan, when appealed to by these religionists, who were as usual squabbling and fighting, answered, “What matter if the dog tear the hog or the hog tear the dog”?

 [FN#275] The “Sharí’at” forbidding divorce by force.

 [FN#276] i.e. protect my honour.

 [FN#277] For this proverb see vol. v. 138. 1 have remarked that “Shame” is not a passion in Europe as in the East; the Western equivalent to the Arab. “Hayá’ ’would be the Latin “Pudor.”

 [FN#278] Arab. “Talákan báinan,” here meaning a triple divorce before witnesses, making it irrevocable.

 [FN#279] i.e. who had played him that trick.

 [FN#280] The Bresl. Edit. (vol. xii. pp. 50-116, Nights dcccclviii- dcccclxv.) entitles it "Tale of Abu al-Hasan the Damascene and his son Sídí Nur al-Dín ' Alí." Sídí means simply, "my lord," but here becomes part of the name, a practice perpetuated in Zanzibar. See vol. v.283.

 [FN#281] i.e. at the hours of canonical prayers and other suitable times he made an especial orison (du'á) for issue.

 [FN#282] See vol. i.85, for the traditional witchcraft of Babylonia.

 [FN#283] i.e. More or less thoroughly.

 [FN#284] i.e. "He who quitteth not his native country diverteth not himself with a sight of the wonders of the world."

 [FN#285] For similar sayings, see vol. ix.257, and my Pilgrimage i.127.

 [FN#286] i.e. relying upon, etc.

 [FN#287] The Egyptian term for a khan, called in Persia caravanserai (karwán-serái); and in Marocco funduk, from the Greek; whence the Spanish "fonda." See vol. i. 92.

 [FN#288] Arab. "Baliyah," to jingle with "Bábiliyah."

 [FN#289] As a rule whenever this old villain appears in The Nights, it is a signal for an outburst of obscenity. Here, however, we are quittes pour la peur. See vol. v. 65 for some of his abominations.

 [FN#290] The lines are in vols. viii.279 and ix.197. I quote Mr. Payne.

 [FN#291] Lady or princess of the Fair (ones).

 [FN#292] i.e. of buying.

 [FN#293] Arab. "Azán-hú=lit. its ears.

 [FN#294] Here again the policeman is made a villain of the deepest dye; bad enough to gratify the intelligence of his deadliest enemy, a lodging-keeper in London.

 [FN#295] i.e. You are welcome to it and so it becomes lawful (halál) to you.

 [FN#296] Arab. "Sijn al-Dam," the Carcere duro inasprito (to speak Triestine), where men convicted or even accused of bloodshed were confined.

 [FN#297] Arab. "Mabásim"; plur. of Mabsim, a smiling mouth which shows the foreteeth.

 [FN#298] The branchlet, as usual, is the youth's slender form.

 [FN#299] Subaudi, "An ye disdain my love."

 [FN#300] In the text "sleep."

 [FN#301] "Them" and "him" for "her."

 [FN#302] 'Urkúb, a Jew of Yathrib or Khaybar, immortalised in the A.P. (i. 454) as "more promise-breaking than 'Urkúb."

 [FN#303] Uncle of Mohammed. See vol. viii. 172.

 [FN#304] First cousin of Mohammed. See ib.

 [FN#305] This threat of "'Orf with her 'ead" shows the Caliph's lordliness.

 [FN#306] Arab. "Al-Bashkhánah."

 [FN#307] i.e. Amen. See vol. ix. 131.

 [FN#308] When asked, on Doomsday, his justification for having slain her.

 [FN#309] Khorasan which included our Afghanistan, turbulent then as now, was in a chronic state of rebellion during the latter part of Al-Rashid's reign.

 [FN#310] The brutality of a Moslem mob on such occasions is phenomenal: no fellow-feeling makes them decently kind. And so at executions even women will take an active part in insulting and tormenting the criminal, tearing his hair, spitting in his face and so forth. It is the instinctive brutality with which wild beasts and birds tear to pieces a wounded companion.

 [FN#311] The popular way of stopping hemorrhage by plunging the stump into burning oil which continued even in Europe till Ambrose Paré taught men to take up the arteries.

 [FN#312] i.e. folk of good family.

 [FN#313] i.e. the result of thy fervent prayers to Allah for me.

 [FN#314] Arab. "Al-Abárík" plur. of lbrik, an ewer containing water for the Wuzu-ablution. I have already explained that a Moslem wishing to be ceremonially pure, cannot wash as Europeans do, in a basin whose contents are fouled by the first touch.

 [FN#315] Arab. "Náihah ,the prFfica or myriologist. See vol. i. 311. The proverb means, "If you want a thing done, do it yourself."

 [FN#316] Arab. "Burka'," the face veil of Egypt, Syria, and Arabia with two holes for the eyes, and the end hanging to the waist, a great contrast with the "Lithám or coquettish fold of transparent muslin affected by modest women in Stambul.

 [FN#317] i.e. donned petticoat-trousers and walking boots other than those she was wont to wear.

 [FN#318] "Surah" (Koranic chapter) may be a clerical error for "Súrah" (with a Sád) = sort, fashion (of food).

 [FN#319] This is solemn religious chaff; the Shaykh had doubtless often dipped his hand abroad in such dishes; but like a good Moslem, he contented himself at home with wheaten scones and olives, a kind of sacramental food like bread and wine in southern Europe. But his retort would be acceptable to the True Believer who, the strictest of conservatives, prides himself on imitating in all points, the sayings and doings of the Apostle.

 [FN#320] i.e. animals that died without being ceremonially killed.

 [FN#321] Koran ii. 168. This is from the Chapter of the Cow where "that which dieth of itself (carrion), blood, pork, and that over which other name but that of Allah (i.e. idols) hath been invoked" are forbidden. But the verset humanely concludes: "Whoso, however, shall eat them by constraint, without desire, or as a transgressor, then no sin shall be upon him."

 [FN#322] i.e. son of Simeon=a Christian.

 [FN#323] Arab. and Heb. "Haykal," suggesting the idea of large space, a temple, a sanctuary, a palace which bear a suspicious likeness to the Accadian K-kal or Great House = the old Egyptian Perao (Pharaoh?), and the Japanese "Mikado."

 [FN#324] Wine, carrion and pork being lawful to the Moslem if used to save life. The former is also the sovereignest thing for inward troubles, flatulence, indigestion, etc. See vol. v. 2, 24.

 [FN#325] Arab. "Názilah," i.e., a curse coming down from Heaven.

 [FN#326] Here and below, a translation of her name.

 [FN#327] "A picture of Paradise which is promised to the God-fearing! Therein are rivers of water which taint not; and rivers of milk whose taste changeth not; and rivers of wine, etc."--Koran xlvii. 16.

 [FN#328]     Let us have wine and women, mirth and laughter,
        Sermons and soda-water the day after.
                            Don Juan ii. 178.

 [FN#329] The ox (Bakar) and the bull (Taur, vol. i. 16) are the Moslem emblems of stupidity, as with us are the highly intelligent ass and the most sagacious goose.

 [FN#330] In Arab. "'Ud" means primarily wood; then a lute. See vol. ii. 100. The Muezzin, like the schoolmaster, is popularly supposed to be a fool.

 [FN#331] I have noticed that among Arab lovers it was the fashion to be jealous of the mistress's nightly phantom which, as amongst mesmerists, is the lover's embodied will.

 [FN#332] i.e. I will lay down my life to save thee from sorrow--a common-place hyperbole of love.

 [FN#333] Arab. "Katl." I have noticed the Hibernian "kilt" which is not a bull but, like most provincialisms and Americanisms, a survival, an archaism. In the old Frisian dialect, which agrees with English in more words than "bread, butter and cheese," we find the primary meaning of terms which with us have survived only in their secondary senses, e.g. killen = to beat and slagen = to strike. Here is its great value to the English philologist. When the Irishman complains that he is "kilt" we know through the Frisian what he really means.

 [FN#334] The decency of this description is highly commendable and I may note that the Bresl. Edit. is comparatively free from erotic pictures.

 [FN#335] i.e. "I commit him to thy charge under God."

 [FN#336] This is an Americanism, but it translates passing well "Al-iláj" = insertion.

 [FN#337] Arab. (and Heb.) "Tarjumán" = a dragoman, for which see vol. i. 100. In the next tale it will occur with the sense of polyglottic.

 [FN#338] See vol. i. p. 35.

 [FN#339] After putting to death the unjust Prefect.

 [FN#340] Arab. "Lajlaj." See vol. ix. 322.

 [FN#341] Arab. "Mawálid" lit. = nativity festivals (plur. of Maulid). See vol. ix. 289.

 [FN#342] Bresl. Edit., vol. xii. pp. 116-237, Nights dcccclxvi-dcccclxxix. Mr. Payne entitles it "El Abbas and the King's Daughter of Baghdad."

 [FN#343] "Of the Shayban tribe." I have noticed (vol. ii. 1) how loosely the title Malik (King) is applied in Arabic and in mediFval Europe. But it is ultra-Shakespearean to place a Badawi King in Baghdad, the capital founded by the Abbasides and ruled by those Caliphs till their downfall.

 [FN#344] i.e. Irák Arabí (ChaldFa) and 'Ajami (Western Persia). For the meaning of Al-Irák, which always, except in verse, takes the article, see vol. ii. 132.

 [FN#345] See supra, p. 135. Mr. Payne suspects a clerical error for "Turkumániyah" = Turcomanish; but this is hardly acceptable.

 [FN#346] As fabulous a personage as "King Kays."

 [FN#347] Possibly a clerical error for Zabíd, the famous capital of the Tahámah or lowlands of Al-Yaman.

 [FN#348] The Moslem's Holy Land whose capital is Meccah.

 [FN#349] A hinted protest against making a picture or a statue which the artist cannot quicken; as this process will be demanded of him on Doomsday. Hence also the Princess is called Máriyah (Maria, Mary), a non-Moslem name.

 [FN#350] i.e. day and night, for ever.

 [FN#351] Koran xxxiii. 38; this concludes a "revelation" concerning the divorce and marriage to Mohammed of the wife of his adopted son Zayd. Such union, superstitiously held incestuous by all Arabs, was a terrible scandal to the rising Faith, and could be abated only by the "Commandment of Allah." It is hard to believe that a man could act honestly after such fashion; but we have seen in our day a statesman famed for sincerity and uprightness honestly doing things the most dishonest possible. Zayd and Abu Lahab (chap. cxi. i.) are the only contemporaries of Mohammed named in the Koran.

 [FN#352] i.e. darkened behind him.

 [FN#353] Here we have again, as so common in Arab romances, the expedition of a modified Don Quixote and Sancho Panza.

 [FN#354] Arab. "Arzi-há" = in its earth, its outlying suburbs.

 [FN#355] The king's own tribe.

 [FN#356] i.e. he was always "spoiling for a fight."

 [FN#357] In the text the two last sentences are spoken by Amir and the story-teller suddenly resumes the third person.

 [FN#358] Mr. Payne translates this "And God defend the right" (of plunder according to the Arabs).

 [FN#359] Arab. "Lilláhi darruk"; see vol. iv. 20. Captain Lockett (p.28) justly remarks that "it is a sort of encomiastic exclamation of frequent occurrence in Arabic and much easier to comprehend than translate." Darra signifies flowing freely (as milk from the udder) and was metaphorically transferred to bounty and to indoles or natural capacity. Thus the phrase means "your flow of milk is by or through Allah." i.e., of unusual abundance.

 [FN#360] The words are euphemistic: we should say "comest thou to our succour."

 [FN#361] i.e. If his friend the Devil be overstrong for thee, flee him rather than be slain; as

         He who fights and runs away
         Shall live to fight another day.

 [FN#362] i.e. I look to Allah for said (and keep my powder dry).

 [FN#363] i.e. to the next world.

 [FN#364] This falling backwards in laughter commonly occurs during the earlier tales; it is, however, very rare amongst the Badawin.

 [FN#365] i.e. as he were a flying Jinni, swooping down and pouncing falcon-like upon a mortal from the upper air.

 [FN#366] This may be (reading Imraan = man, for Amran = matter) "a masterful man"; but I can hardly accept it.

 [FN#367] Arab. "Bundukí," the adj. of Bunduk, which the Moslems evidently learned from Slav sources; Venedik being the Dalmatian corruption of Venezia. See Dubrovenedik in vol. ii. 219.

 [FN#368] i.e. the castle's square.

 [FN#369] In sign of quitting possession. Chess in Europe is rarely played for money, with the exception of public matches: this, however, is not the case amongst Easterns, who are also for the most part as tricky as an old lady at cribbage rightly named.

 [FN#370] i.e, he was as eloquent and courtly as he could be.

 [FN#371] Arab. "Ya Zínat al-Nisá," which may either be a P.N. or a polite address as Bella fé (Handsome woman) is to any feminine in Southern Italy.

 [FN#372] Arab. "Raas Ghanam": this form of expressing singularity is common to Arabic and the Eastern languages, which it has influenced.

 [FN#373] This most wearisome form of politeness is common in the Moslem world, where men fondly think that the more you see of them the more you like of them. Yet their Proverbial Philosophy ("the wisdom of many and the wit of one") strongly protests against the practice: I have already quoted Mohammed's saying, "Zur ghibban, tazid Hibban"--visits rare keep friendship fair.

 [FN#374] This clause in the text is evidently misplaced (vol. xii.144).

 [FN#375] Arab. Dara' or Dira'=armour, whether of leather or metal; here the coat worn under the mail.

 [FN#376] Called from Rustak, a quarter of Baghdad. For Rustak town see vol. vi. 289.

 [FN#377] From Damietta comes our "dimity." The classical name was Tamiáthis apparently Coptic grFcised: the old town on the shore famed in Crusading times was destroyed in A.H. 648 = 1251.

 [FN#378] Easterns are always startled by sudden summons to the presence either of King or Kazi: here the messenger gives the youth to understand that it is in kindness, not in anger.

 [FN#379] i.e. in not sending for thee to court instead of allowing thee to live in the city without guest-rite.

 [FN#380] In sign of agitation: the phrase has often been used in this sense and we find it also in Al-Mas'udi.

 [FN#381] I would remind the reader that the "Dawát" (ink-case) contains the reed-pens.

 [FN#382] Two well-known lovers.

 [FN#383] On such occasions the old woman (and Easterns are hard de dolo vetularum) always assents to the sayings of her prey, well knowing what the doings will inevitably be.

 [FN#384] Travellers, Nomads, Wild Arabs.

 [FN#385] Whither they bear thee back dead with the women crying and keening.

 [FN#386] Arab. Aznání = emaciated me.

 [FN#387] Either the Deity or the Love-god.

 [FN#388] Arab. "HimB" = the tribal domain, a word which has often occurred.

 [FN#389] "O ye who believe! seek help through patience and prayer: verily, Allah is with the patient." Koran ii. 148. The passage refers to one of the battles, Bedr or Ohod.

 [FN#390] Arab. "Sirr" (a secret) and afterwards "Kitmán" (concealment) i.e. Keeping a lover down-hearted.

 [FN#391] Arab. "'Alkam" = the bitter gourd, colocynth; more usually "Hanzal."

 [FN#392] "For Jazírah" = insula, island, used in the sense of "peninsula," see vol. i. 2.

 [FN#393] Meccah and Al-Medinah. Pilgrimage i. 338 and ii. 57, used in the proverb "Sharr fi al-Haramayn" = wickedness in the two Holy Places.

 [FN#394] Arab. Al-hamd (o li'llah).

 [FN#395] i.e. play, such as the chase, or an earnest matter, such as war, etc.

 [FN#396] Arab. "Mizwad," or Mizwad = lit. provision-bag, from Zád = viaticum; afterwards called Kirbah (pron. Girbah, the popular term), and Sakl. The latter is given in the Dictionaries as Askálah = scala, échelle, stage, plank.

 [FN#397] Those blood-feuds are most troublesome to the traveller, who may be delayed by them for months: and, until a peace be patched up, he will never be allowed to pass from one tribe to their enemies. A quarrel of the kind prevented my crossing Arabia from Al-Medinah to Maskat (Pilgrimage, ii. 297), and another in Africa from visiting the head of the Tanganyika Lake. In all such journeys the traveller who has to fight against Time is almost sure to lose.

 [FN#398] i.e. his fighting-men.

 [FN#399] The popular treatment of a detected horse-thief, for which see Burckhardt, Travels in Arabia (1829), and Notes on the Bedouins and Wahabys (1830).

 [FN#400] Arab "Ashírah": see vol. vii. 121.

 [FN#401] Arab. "Musáfahah" -. see vol. vi. 287.

 [FN#402] In the text, "To the palace of the king's daughter."

 [FN#403] Arab. "Marj Salí'" = cleft meadow (here and below). Mr. Payne suggests that this may be a mistranscription for Marj Salí' (with a Sád) = a treeless champaign. It appears to me a careless blunder for the Marj akhzar (green meadow) before mentioned.

 [FN#404] The palace, even without especial and personal reasons, not being the place for a religious and scrupulous woman.

 [FN#405] "i.e. those of El Aziz, who had apparently entered the city or passed through it on their way to the camp of El Abbas." This is Mr. Payne's suggestion.

 [FN#406] Arab "Hatif"; gen. = an ally.

 [FN#407] Not wishing to touch the hand of a strange woman.

 [FN#408] i.e. a mere passer-by, a stranger; alluding to her taunt.

 [FN#409] The Bactrian or double-humped dromedary. See vol. iii. 67. Al-Mas'udi (vii. 169) calls it "Jamal fálij," lit. = the palsy-camel.

 [FN#410] i.e. Stars and planets.

 [FN#411] i.e. Sang in tenor tones which are always in falsetto.

 [FN#412] Arab. Tahzíb = reforming morals, amending conduct, chastening style.

 [FN#413] i.e. so as to show only the whites, as happens to the "mesmerised."

 [FN#414] i.e. for love of and longing for thy youth.

 [FN#415] i.e. leather from Al-Táif: see vol. viii. 303. The text has by mistake Tálifí.

 [FN#416] i.e. she was at her last breath, when cured by the magic of love.

 [FN#417] i.e. violateth my private apartment.

 [FN#418] The voice (Sházz) is left doubtful: it may be girl's, nightingale's, or dove's.

 [FN#419] Arab. "Hibá" partly induced by the rhyme. In desert countries the comparison will be appreciated: in Sind the fine dust penetrates into a closed book.

 [FN#420] i.e. he smuggled it in under his 'Abá-cloak: perhaps it was a better brand than that made in the monastery.

 [FN#421] i.e. the delights of Paradise promised by the Prophet.

 [FN#422] Again, "he" for "she," making the lover's address more courtly and delicate.

 [FN#423] i.e. take refuge with Allah from the evil eye of her charms.

 [FN#424] i.e. an thou prank or adorn thyself: I have translated literally, but the couplet strongly suggests "nonsense verses."

 [FN#425] Arab. "Santír:" Lane (M.E., chapt. xviii.) describes it as resembling the Kanún (dulcimer or zither) but with two oblique peg-pieces instead of one and double chords of wire (not treble strings of lamb's gut) and played upon with two sticks instead of the little plectra. Dozy also gives Santir from øáëôÞkéïí, the Fsaltrún of Daniel.

 [FN#426] i.e. That which is ours shall be thine, and that which is incumbent on thee shall be incumbent on us = we will assume thy debts and responsibilities.

 [FN#427] This passage is sadly disjointed in the text: I have followed Mr. Payne's ordering.

 [FN#428] The Arab of noble tribe is always the first to mount his own mare: he also greatly fears her being put out to full speed by a stranger, holding that this should be reserved for occasions of life and death; and that it can be done to perfection only once during the animal's life.

 [FN#429] The red (Ahmar) dromedary like the white-red (Sabah) were most valued because they are supposed best to bear the heats of noon; and thus "red camels" is proverbially used for wealth. When the head of Abu Jahl was brought in after the Battle of Bedr, Mahommed exclaimed, "'Tis more acceptable to me than a red camel!"

 [FN#430] i.e. Couriers on dromedaries, the only animals used for sending messages over long distances.

 [FN#431] These guest-fires are famous in Arab poetry. So Al-Harírí (Ass. of Banu Haram) sings:--

         A beacon fire I ever kindled high;

i.e. on the hill-tops near the camp, to guide benighted travellers. Also the Lamíyat al-Ajam says:--

         The fire of hospitality is ever lit on the high stations.

This natural telegraph was used in a host of ways by the Arabs of The Ignorance; for instance, when a hated guest left the camp they lighted the "Fire of Rejection," and cried, "Allah, bear him far from us!" Nothing was more ignoble than to quench such fire: hence in obloquy of the Fazár tribe it was said:--

         Ne'er trust Fazár with an ass, for they
              Once roasted ass-pizzle, the rabble rout:
         And, when sight they guest, to their dams they say,
              "Piss quick on the guest-fire and put it out!"
    (Al-Mas"udi vi. 140.)

 [FN#432] i.e. of rare wood, set with rubies.

 [FN#433] i.e. whose absence pained us.

 [FN#434] Mr. Payne and I have long puzzled over these enigmatical and possibly corrupt lines: he wrote to me in 1884, "This is the first piece that has beaten me." In the couplet above (vol. xii. 230) "Rayhání" may mean "my basil-plant" or "my food" (the latter Koranic), "my compassion," etc.; and Súsání is equally ancipitous "My lilies" or "my sleep": see Bard al-Susan = les douceurs du sommeil in Al-Mas'údi vii. 168.

 [FN#435] The "Niká" or sand hill is the swell of the throat: the Ghaur or lowland is the fall of the waist: the flower is the breast anent which Mr. Payne appropriately quotes the well-known lines of Fletcher:

         "Hide, O hide those hills of snow,
         That thy frozen bosom bears,
         On whose tops the pinks that grow
         Are of those that April wears."

 [FN#436] Easterns are right in regarding a sleepy languorous look as one of the charms of women, and an incitement to love because suggestive only of bed. Some men also find the same pleasure in a lacrymose expression of countenance, seeming always to call for consolation: one of the most successful women I know owes her exceptional good fortune to this charm.

 [FN#437] Arab. "Hájib,"eyebrow or chamberlain; see vol. iii. 233. The pun is classical used by a host of poets including Al-Harírí.

 [FN#438] Arab. "Tarfah." There is a Tarfia Island in the Guadalquivir and in Gibraltar a "Tarfah Alto" opposed to "Tarfali bajo." But it must not be confounded with Tarf = a side, found in the Maroccan term for "The Rock" Jabal al-Tarf = Mountain of the Point (of Europe).

 [FN#439] For Solomon and his flying carpet see vol. iii. 267.

 [FN#440] Arab. "Bilád al-Maghrib (al-Aksa," in full) = the Farthest Land of the setting Sun, shortly called Al-Maghrib and the people "Maghribi." The earliest occurrence of our name Morocco or Marocco I find in the "Marákiyah" of Al-Mas'udi (iii. 241), who apparently applies it to a district whither the Berbers migrated.

 [FN#441] The necklace-pearls are the cup-bearer's teeth.

 [FN#442] In these unregenerate days they would often be summoned to the houses of the royal family; but now they had "got religion" and, becoming freed women, were resolved to be "respectable." In not a few Moslem countries men of wealth and rank marry professional singers who, however loose may have been their artistic lives, mostly distinguish themselves by decency of behaviour often pushed to the extreme of rigour. Also jeune coquette, vieille dévote is a rule of the world, Eastern and Western.

 [FN#443] Bresl. Edit., vol. xii p. 383 (Night mi).  The king is called as usual “Shahrbán,” which is nearly synonymous with Shahryár.

 [FN#444] i.e. the old Sindibae-Námeh (see vol. vi. 122), or “The Malice of Women” which the Bresl. Edit. entitles, “Tale of the King and his Son and his Wife and the Seven Wazirs.”  Here it immediately follows the Tale of Al-Abbas and Mariyah and occupies pp. 237-383 of vol. xii, (Nights dcccclxxix-m).

 [FN#445] i.e. Those who commit it.

 [FN#446] The connection between this pompous introduction and the story which follows is not apparent.  The “Tale of the Two Kings and the Wazir’s Daughters” is that of Shahrazad told in the third person, in fact a rechauffé of the Introduction.  But as some three years have passed since the marriage, and the dénouement of the plot is at hand, the Princess is made, with some art I think, to lay the whole affair before her husband in her own words, the better to bring him to a “sense of his duty.”

 [FN#447] Bresl. Edit., vol. xii. Pp. 384-412.

 [FN#448] This clause is taken from the sequence, where the older brother’s kingdom is placed in China.

 [FN#449] For the Tobbas = “Successors” or the Himyaritic kings, see vol. i. 216.

 [FN#450] Kayásirah, opp. to Akásirah, here and in many other places.

 [FN#451] See vol. ii. 77. King Kulayb (“little dog”) al-Wá’il, a powerful chief of the Banu Ma’ad in the Kasín district of Najd, who was connected with the war of Al-Basús.  He is so called because he lamed a pup (kulayb) and tied it up in the midst of his Himá (domain, place of pasture and water), forbidding men to camp within sound of its bark or sight of his fire.  Hence “more masterful than Kulayb,” A.P. ii. 145, and Al-Hariri Ass. Xxvi. (Chenery, p. 448).  This angry person came by his death for wounding in the udder a trespassing camel (Sorab) whose owner was a woman named Basús.  Her friend (Jasús) slew him; and thus arose the famous long war between the tribes Wá’il Bakr and Taghlib.  It gave origin to the saying, “Die thou and be an expiation for the shoe-latchet of Kulayb.”

 [FN#452] Arab.  “Mukhaddarát,” maidens concealed behind curtains and veiled in the Harem.

 [FN#453] i.e. the professional Ráwis or tale-reciters who learned stories by heart from books like “The Arabian Nights.”  See my Terminal Essay, vol. x. 144.

 [FN#454] Arab.  “Bid’ah,” lit. = an innovation, a new thing, an invention, any change from the custom of the Prophet and the universal practice of the Faith, where it be in the cut of the beard or a question of state policy.  Popularly the word = heterodoxy, heresy; but theologically it is not necessarily used in a bad sense.  See vol. v. 167.

 [FN#455] About three parts of this sentence have been supplied by Mr. Payne, the careless scribe having evidently omitted it.

 [FN#456] Here, as in the Introduction (vol. i. 24), the king consummates his marriage in presence of his virgin sister-in-law, a process which decency forbids amongst Moslems.

 [FN#457] Al-Mas’udi (vol. iv. 213) uses this term to signify viceroy in “Shahryár Sajastán.”

 [FN#458] i.e. his indifference to the principles of right and wrong, which is a manner of moral intoxication.

 [FN#459] i.e. hath mentioned the office of Wazir (in Koran xx. 30).

 [FN#460] i.e. Moslems, who practice the Religion of Resignation.

 [FN#461] Koran xxxiii. 35.  This is a proemium to the “revelation” concerning Zayd and Zaynab.

 [FN#462] i.e. I have an embarras de richesse in my repertory.

 [FN#463] The title is from the Bresl. Edit. (vol. xii. pp. 398-402).  Mr. Payne calls it “The Favourite and her Lover.”

 [FN#464] The practice of fumigating gugglets is universal in Egypt (Lane, M. E., chapt. v.); but I never heard of musk being so used.

 [FN#465] Arab.  “Laysa fi ’l-diyári dayyár”--a favourite jingle.

 [FN#466] Arab.  “Khayr Kathir” (pron. Katír) which also means “abundant kindness.”

 [FN#467] Dozy says of “Hunayní” (Haíní), Il semble Ltre le nom d’un vLtement.  On which we may remark, Connu!

 [FN#468] Arab.  Harísah:  see vol. i. 131.  Westerns make a sad mess of this dish when they describe it as une sorte d’olla podrida (the hotch-pot), une pâtée de viandes, de froment et de légumes secs (Al-Mas’udi viii. 438).  Whenever I have eaten it, it was always a meat-pudding, for which see vol. i. 131.

 [FN#469] Evidently one escaped because she was sleeping with the Caliph, and a second because she had kept her assignation.

 [FN#470] Mr. Payne entitles it, “The Merchant of Cairo and the Favourite of the Khalif el Mamoun el Hakim bi Amrillah.”

 [FN#471] See my Pilgrimage (i. 100): the seat would be on the same bit of boarding where the master sits or on a stool or bench in the street.

 [FN#472] This is true Cairene chaff, give and take; and the stranger must accustom himself to it before he can be at home with the people.

 [FN#473] i.e. In Rauzah-Island: see vol. v. 169.

 [FN#474] There is no historical person who answers to these name, “The Secure, the Ruler by Commandment of Allah.”  The cognomen applies to two soldans of Egypt, of whom the later Abu al-Abbas Ahmad the Abbaside (A.D. 1261-1301) has already been mentioned in The Nights (vol. v. 86).  The tale suggests the earlier Al-Hakim (Abu Ali al-Mansúr, the Fatimite, A.D. 995-1021), the God of the Druze “persuasion;” and the tale-teller may have purposely blundered in changing Mansúr to Maamún for fear of offending a sect which has been most dangerous in the matter of assassination and which is capable of becoming so again.

 [FN#475] Arab.  “’Alá kulli hál” = “whatever may betide,” or “willy-nilly.”  The phrase is still popular.

 [FN#476] The dulce desipere of young lovers, he making a buffoon of himself to amuse her.

 [FN#477] “The convent of Clay,” a Coptic monastery near Cairo.

 [FN#478] i.e. this is the time to show thyself a man.

 [FN#479] The Eastern succedaneum for swimming corks and other “life-preservers.”  The practice is very ancient; we find these guards upon the monuments of Egypt and Babylonia.

 [FN#480] Arab.  “Al-Khalíj,” the name, still popular, of the Grand Canal of Cairo, whose banks, by-the-by, are quaint and picturesque as anything of the kind in Holland.

 [FN#481] We say more laconically “A friend in need.”

 [FN#482] Arab.  “Názir al-Mawárís,” the employé charged with the disposal of legacies and seizing escheats to the Crown when Moslems die intestate.  He is usually a prodigious rascal as in the text.  The office was long kept up in Southern Europe, and Camoens was sent to Macao as “Provedor dos defuntos e ausentes.”

 [FN#483] Sir R. F. Burton has since found two more of "Galland's" tales in an Arabic text of The Nights, namely, Aladdin and Zeyn al-Asnam.

 [FN#484] i.e. wondering; thus Lady Macbeth says:

         "You have displaced the mirth, broke the good meeting,
         With most admired disorder."---Macbeth, iii. 4

 [FN#485] Ludovicus Vives, one of the most learned of Spanish authors, was born at Valentia in 1492 and died in 1540.

 [FN#486] There was an older "Tútí Náma," which Nakhshabí modernised, made from a Sanskrit story-book, now lost, but its modern representative is the "Suka Saptatí," or Seventy (Tales) of a Parrot in which most of Nakhshabi's tales are found.

 [FN#487] According to Lescallier's French translation of the "Bakhtyár Náma," made from two MSS. = "She had previously had a lover, with whom, unknown to her father, she had intimate relations, and had given birth to a beautiful boy, whose education she secretly confided to some trusty servants."

 [FN#488] There is a slight mistake in the passage in p. 313 supplied from the story in vol. vi.  It is not King Shah Bakht, but the other king, who assures his chamberlain that "the lion" has done him no injury.

 [FN#489] Such was formerly the barbarous manner of treating the insane.

 [FN#490] From “Tarlton’s Newes out of Purgatorie.”

 [FN#491] A basket

 [FN#492] In the fabliau “De la Dame qui atrappa un PrLtre, un PrLvôt, et un Forestier” (or Constant du Hamel), the lady, on the pretext that her husband is at the door, stuffs her lovers, as they arrive successively, unknown to each other, into a large tub full of feathers and afterwards exposes them to public ridicule.

 [FN#493] Until

 [FN#494] Requite

 [FN#495] Accidents

 [FN#496] A boarding

 [FN#497] The letter I is very commonly substituted for “ay” in 16th century English books.

 [FN#498] Oesterley mentions a Sanskrit redaction of the Vampyre Tales attributed to Sivadása, and another comprised in the “Kathárnava.”

 [FN#499] And well might his sapient majesty “wonder”!  The humour of this passage is exquisite.

 [FN#500] In the Tamil version (Babington’s translation of the “Vedála Kadai”) there are but two brothers, one of whom is fastidious in his food, the other in beds: the latter lies on a bed stuffed with flowers, deprived of their stalks.  In the morning he complains of pains all over his body, and on examining the bed one hair is found amongst the flowers.  In the Hindí version, the king asks him in the morning whether he had slept comfortably.  “O great King,” he replied; “I did not sleep all night.”  “How so?” quoth he.  “O great King, in the seventh fold of the bedding there is a hair, which pricked me in the back, therefore I could not sleep.”  The youth who was fastidious about the fair sex had a lovely damsel laid beside him, and he was on the point of kissing her, but on smelling her breath he turned away his face, and went to sleep.  Early in the morning the king (who had observed through a lattice what passed) asked him, “Did you pass the night pleasantly?”  He replied that he did not, because the smell of a goat proceeded from the girl’s mouth, which made him very uneasy.  The king then sent for the procuress and ascertained that the girl had been brought up on goat’s milk.

 [FN#501] Mélusine: Revue de Mythologie, Littárature Populaire, Traditions, et Usages.  Dirigée par H. Gaidoz et E. Rolland.--Paris

 [FN#502] The trick of the clever Magyar in marking all the other sleepers as the king’s mother had marked herself occurs in the folk-tales of most countries, especially in the numerous  versions of the Robbery of the King’s Treasury, which are brought together in my work on the Migrations of Popular Tales and Fictions (Blackwood), vol. ii., pp. 113-165.

 [FN#503] A mythical saint, or prophet, who, according to the Muslim legend, was despatched by one of the ancient kings of Persia to procure him some of the Water of Life.  After a tedious journey, Khizr reached the Fountain of Immortality, but having drank of its waters, it suddenly vanished.  Muslims believe that Khizr still lives, and sometimes appears to favoured individuals, always clothed in green, and acts as their guide in difficult enterprises.

 [FN#504] “Spake these words to the king”--certainly not those immediately preceding! but that, if the king would provide for him during three years, at the end of that period he would show Khizr to the king.

 [FN#505] Mr. Gibb compares with this the following passage from Boethius, “De Consolatione PhilosophiF,” as translated by Chaucer:  “All thynges seken ayen to hir propre course, and all thynges rejoysen on hir retourninge agayne to hir nature.”

 [FN#506] In this tale, we see, Khizr appears to the distressed in white raiment.

 [FN#507] In an old English metrical version of the “Seven Sages,” the tutors of the prince, in order to test his progress in general science, secretly place an ivy leaf under each of the four posts of his bed, and when he awakes in the morning--

         “Par fay!” he said, “a ferli cas!
         Other ich am of wine y-drunk,
         Other the firmament is sunk,
         Other wexen is the ground,
         The thickness of four leavPs round!
         So much to-night higher I lay,
         Certes, than yesterday.”

 [FN#508] See also the same story in The Nights, vols. vii. and viii., which Mr. Kirby considers as probably a later version.  (App. vol. x. of The Nights, p. 442).

 [FN#509] So, too, in the “Bahár-i-Dánish” a woman is described as being so able a professor in the school of deceit, that she could have instructed the devil in the science of stratagem: of another it is said that by her wiles she could have drawn the devil’s claws; and of a third the author declares, that the devil himself would own there was no escaping from her cunning!

 [FN#510] There is a similar tale by the Spanish novelist Isidro de Robles (circa 1660), in which three ladies find a diamond ring in a fountain; each claims it; at length they agree to refer the dispute to a count of their acquaintance who happened to be close by.  He takes charge of the ring and says to the ladies, “Whoever in the space of six weeks shall succeed in playing off on her husband the most clever and ingenious trick (always having due regard to his honour) shall possess the ring; in the meantime it shall remain in my hands.”  This story was probably brought by the Moors to Spain, whence it may have passed into France, since it is the subject of a faliau, by Haisiau the trouvrP, entitled “Des Trois Dames qui trouverent un Anel,” which is found in Méon’s edition of Barbazan, 1808, tome iii. pp. 220-229, and in Le Grand, ed. 1781, tome iv. pp. 163-165.

 [FN#511] Idiots and little boys often figure thus in popular tales:  readers of Rabelais will remember his story of the Fool and the Cook; and there is a familiar example of a boy's precocity in the story of the Stolen Purse--"Craft and Malice of Women," or the Seven Wazirs, vol. vi. of The Nights.

 [FN#512] I have considerably abridged Mr. Knowles' story in several places.

 [FN#513] A species of demon.

 [FN#514] This is one of the innumerable parallels to the story of Jonah in the "whale's" belly which occur m Asiatic fictions. See, for some instances, Tawney's translation of the "Kathá Sarit Ságara," ch. xxxv. and [xxiv.; "Indian Antiquary," Sept. 1885, Legend of Ahlá; Miss Stokes' "Indian Fairy Tales," pp. 75, 76, and Steel and Temple's "Wide-Awake Stories from the Panjáb and Kashmír," p. 411. In Lucian's "Vera Historia," a monster fish swallows a ship and her crew, who live a long time in the extensive regions comprised in its internal economy. See also Herrtage's "Gesta Romanorum" (Early English Text Society), p. 297.

 [FN#515] In the Arabian version the people resolve to leave the choice of a new king to the royal elephant because they could not agree among themselves (vol. i., p. 224), but in Indian fictions such an incident frequently occurs as a regular custom. In the "Sivandhi Sthala Purana," a legendary account of the famous temple at Trichinopoli, as supposed to be told by Gautama to Matanga and other sages, it is related that a certain king having mortally offended a holy devotee, his capital and all its inhabitants were, in consequence of a curse pronounced by the enraged saint, buried beneath a shower of dust. ''Only the queen escaped, and in her flight she was delivered of a male-child. After some time. the chiefs of the Chola kingdom, proceeding to elect a king, determined, by the advice of the saint to crown whomsoever the late monarch's elephant should pitch upon. Being turned loose for this purpose, the elephant discovered and brought to Trisira-málí the child of his former master, who accordingly became the Chola king." (Wilson's Desc. Catal. of Mackenzie MSS., i. 17.) In a Manipurí story of two brothers, Turi and Basanta--"Indian Antiquary," vol. iii.--the elder is chosen king in like manner by an elephant who meets him in the forest, and takes him on his back to the palace, where he is immediately placed on the throne See also "Wide-Awake Stories Tom the Panjáb and Kashmír," by Mrs. Steel and Captain Temple, p. 141; and Rev. Lal Behari Day's "Folk-Tales of Bengal," p. 100 for similar instances. The hawk taking part, in this story, with the elephant in the selection of a king does not occur m any other tale known to me.

 [FN#516] So that their caste might not be injured. A dhobí, or washerman, is of much lower caste than a Bráhman or a Khshatriya.

 [FN#517] A responsible position in a rájá's palace.

 [FN#518] "And Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights." Rájá Ambá must have been fully twelve years in the stomach of the alligator.

 [FN#519] This device of the mother to obtain speech of the king is much more natural than that adopted in the Kashmiri version.

 [FN#520] The story of Abú Sábir (see vol. i. p. 58 ff.) may also be regarded as an analogue. He is unjustly deprived of all his possessions, and, with his wife and two young boys, driven forth of his village. The children are borne off by thieves, and their mother forcibly carried away by a horseman. Abú Sábir, after many sufferings, is raised from a dungeon to a throne. He regains his two children and his wife, who had steadfastly refused to cohabit with her captor.

 [FN#521] Introduction to the romance of "Torrent of Portingale," re-edited (for the Early English Text Society, 1886) by E. Adam, Ph.D., pp. xxi. xxii.

 [FN#522] Morning.

 [FN#523] Bird.

 [FN#524] Mean; betoken.

 [FN#525] Thee.

 [FN#526] Tho: then.

 [FN#527] Yede: went.

 [FN#528] Case.

 [FN#529] Avaunced: advanced; promoted.

 [FN#530] Holpen: helped.

 [FN#531] Brent: burnt.

 [FN#532] But if: unless.

 [FN#533] To wed: in pledge, in security.

 [FN#534] Beth: are.

 [FN#535] Or: either.

 [FN#536] Lever dey: rather die.

 [FN#537] Far, distant.

 [FN#538] Unless.

 [FN#539] Oo: one.

 [FN#540] Ayen: again.

 [FN#541] Or: ere, before.

 [FN#542] Army; host.

 [FN#543] Part.

 [FN#544] That.

 [FN#545] Grief, sorrow.

 [FN#546] Poor.

 [FN#547] Gathered, or collected, together.

 [FN#548] Arms; accoutrements; dress.

 [FN#549] Bravely.

 [FN#550] Those.

 [FN#551] Done, ended.

 [FN#552] Their lodgings, inn.

 [FN#553] Since.

 [FN#554] Comrades.

 [FN#555] Truly.

 [FN#556] Lodged.

 [FN#557] Inn.

 [FN#558] Hem: them.

 [FN#559] Chief of the army.

 [FN#560] I note: I know not.

 [FN#561] Nor.

 [FN#562] Place.

 [FN#563] That is by means of his hounds.

 [FN#564] A wood.

 [FN#565] Those.

 [FN#566] Her: their.

 [FN#567] Looks towards; attends to.

 [FN#568] Give.

 [FN#569] Excepting, unless.

 [FN#570] Face, countenance.

 [FN#571] Care, close examination.

 [FN#572] Pallata, Lat. (Paletot, O. Fr. ), sometimes signifying a particular stuff, and sometimes a particular dress.  See Du Cange.

 [FN#573] Cut; divided

 [FN#574] Wept.

 [FN#575] Sailing.

 [FN#576] More.

 [FN#577] Much.

 [FN#578] Sultan.

 [FN#579] Name.

 [FN#580] Voice, i.e., command.

 [FN#581] Slew.

 [FN#582] Labour.

 [FN#583] Drew.

 [FN#584] Went.

 [FN#585] Burning coal.

 [FN#586] Pray; beg.

 [FN#587] Recovered.

 [FN#588] Head.

 [FN#589] Weeping.

 [FN#590] Saw.

 [FN#591] Waving.

 [FN#592] Began to climb.

 [FN#593] Against.

 [FN#594] More.

 [FN#595] From an early volume of the "Asiatic Journal," the number of which I did not "make a note of--thus, for once at least, disregarding the advice of the immortal Captain Cuttle.

 [FN#596] "It was no wonder," says this writer, "that his (i.e. Galland's) version of the 'Arabian Nights' achieved a universal popularity, and was translated into many languages, and that it provoked a crowd of imitations, from 'Les Mille et Un Jours' to the 'Tales of the Genii.’”

 [FN#597] This is a version of The Sleeper and the Waker--with a vengeance! Abú Hasan the Wag, the Tinker, and the Rustic, and others thus practiced upon by frolic-loving princes and dukes, had each, at least, a most delightful "dream." But when a man is similarly handled by the "wife of his bosom"--in stories, only, of course--the case is very different as the poor chief of police experienced. Such a "dream" as his wife induced upon him we may be sure he would remember "until that day that he did creep into his sepulchre!"

 [FN#598] I call this "strikingly similar" to the preceding Persian story, although it has fewer incidents and the lady's husband remains a monk, she could not have got him back even had she wished; for, having taken the vows, he was debarred from returning to "the world " which a kalandar or dervish may do as often as he pleases.

 [FN#599] “The Woman's trick against her Husband.”