Volume 2 Footnotes

 [FN#1] Supplementarily to note 2, p. 2, [FN#2 Vol 1]and note 2, p. 14, [FN#21 Vol 1] vol. i., I may add that "Shahrázád," in the Shams al-Loghat, is the P.N. of a King. L. Langlès (Les Voyages de Sindibâd Le Marin et La Ruse des Femmes, first appended to Savary's Grammar and reprinted 12 mot pp. 161 + 113, Imprimerie Royale, Paris, M.D.CCC.XIV) explains it by Le cyprès, la beauté de la ville; and he is followed by (A. de Biberstein) Kazimirski (Ends el-Djelis Paris, Barrois, 1847). Ouseley (Orient. Collect.) makes Shahrzád=town-born; and others an Arabisation of Chehr-ázád (free of face, ingenuous of countenance) the petit nom of Queen Humay, for whom see the Terminal Essay. The name of the sister, whom the Fihrist converts into a Kahramánah, or nurse, vulgarly written Dínár-zád, would= child of gold pieces, freed by gold pieces, or one who has no need of gold pieces: Dínzád=child of faith and Daynázád, proposed by Langlès, "free from debt (!)" I have adopted Macnaghten's Dunyazad. "Shahryar," which Scott hideously writes "Shier ear," is translated by the Shams, King of the world, absolute monarch and the court of Anushir wan while the Burhán-i-Káti'a renders it a King of Kings, and P.N. of a town. Shahr-báz is also the P.N. of a town in Samarcand.

 [FN#2] Arab. "Malik," here used as in our story-books: "Pompey was a wise and powerful King” says the Gesta Romanorum. This King is, as will appear, a Regent or Governor under Harun al-Rashid. In the next tale he is Viceroy of Damascus, where he is also called "Sultan."

 [FN#3] The Bull Edit. gives the lines as follows:---

 The lance was his pen, and the hearts of his foes * His paper, and dipped he in blood for ink;
 Hence our sires entitled the spear Khattíyah, * Meaning that withal man shall write, I think.

The pun is in "Khattíyah" which may mean a writer (feminine) and also a spear, from Khatt Hajar, a tract in the province Al-Bahrayn (Persian Gulf), and Oman, where the best Indian bamboos were landed and fashioned into lances. Imr al-Keys (Mu'allakah v. 4.) sings of "our dark spears firmly wrought of Khattiyan cane;" Al-Busírí of "the brown lances of Khatt;" also see Lebid v. 50 and Hamásah pp. 26, 231, Antar notes the "Spears of Khatt" and "Rudaynian lances." Rudaynah is said to have been the wife of one Samhár, the Ferrara of lances; others make her the wife of Al-Ka'azab and hold Sambár to be a town in Abyssinia where the best weapons were manufactured The pen is the Calamus or Kalam (reed cut for pen) of which the finest and hardest are brought from Java: they require the least ribbing. The rhetorical figure in the text is called Husn al-Ta'alíl, our aetiology; and is as admirable to the Arabs as it appears silly to us.

 [FN#4] "He loves folk" is high praise, meaning something more than benevolence and beneficence.. Like charity it covers a host of sins.

 [FN#5] The sentence is euphuistic.

 [FN#6] Arab. "Rubb"=syrup a word Europeanised by the "Rob Laffecteur."

 [FN#7] The Septentriones or four oxen and their wain.

 [FN#8] The list fatally reminds us of "astronomy and the use of the globes" . . . "Shakespeare and the musical glasses."

 [FN#9] The octave occurs in Night xv. I quote Torrens (p. 360) by way of variety.

 [FN#10] A courteous formula of closing with the offer.

 [FN#11] To express our "change of climate" Easterns say, "change of water and air," water coming first.

 [FN#12] "The sun shall not smite thee by day, nor the moon by night" (Psalm cxxi. 6). Easterns still believe in the blighting effect of the moon's rays, which the Northerners of Europe, who view it under different conditions, are pleased to deny. I have seen a hale and hearty Arab, after sitting an hour in the moonlight, look like a man fresh from a sick bed; and I knew an Englishman in India whose face was temporarily paralysed by sleeping with it exposed to the moon.

 [FN#13] The negroids and negroes of Zanzibar.

 [FN#14] i.e. Why not make thy heart as soft as thy sides! The converse of this was reported at Paris during the Empire, when a man had by mistake pinched a very high personage: "Ah, Madame! if your heart be as hard as (what he had pinched) I am a lost man."

 [FN#15] "Na'íman" is said to one after bathing or head-shaving: the proper reply, for in the East every sign of ceremony has its countersign, is "Allah benefit thee!" (Pilgrimage i. 11, iii. 285; Lane M. E. chaps. viii.; Caussin de Perceval's Arabic Grammar, etc., etc.) I have given a specimen (Pilgrimage i., 122) not only of sign and countersign, but also of the rhyming repartee which rakes love. Hanien ! (pleasant to thee! said when a man drinks). Allah pleasure thee (Allah yuhanník which Arnauts and other ruffians perverted to Allah yaník, Allah copulate with thee); thou drinkest for ten!)I am the cock and thou art the hen! (i.e. a passive catamite))Nay, I am the thick one (the penis which gives pleasure) and thou art the thin! And so forth with most unpleasant pleasantries.

 [FN#16] In the old version she is called "The Fair Persian," probably from the owner: her name means "The Cheerer of the Companion."

 [FN#17] Pronounce "Nooraddeen." I give the name written in Arabic.

 [FN#18] Amongst Moslems, I have said, it is held highly disgraceful when the sound of women's cries can be heard by outsiders.

 [FN#19] In a case like this, the father would be justified by Rasm (or usage) not by Koranic law, in playing Brutus with his son. The same would be the case in a detected intrigue with a paternal concubine and, in very strict houses, with a slave-girl.

 [FN#20] Orientals fear the "Zug" or draught as much as Germans; and with even a better reason. Draughts are most dangerous in hot climates.

 [FN#21] The Unity of the Godhead and the Apostleship of Mohammed.

 [FN#22] This would be done only in the case of the very poor.

 [FN#23] Prayers over the dead are not universal in Al-Islam; but when they are recited they lack the "sijdah" or prostration.

 [FN#24] Or, "Of the first and the last," i.e. Mohammed, who claimed (and claimed justly) to be the "Seal" or head and end of all Prophets and Prophecy. For note that whether the Arab be held inspired or a mere imposter, no man making the same pretension has moved the world since him. Mr. J. Smith the Mormon (to mention one in a myriad) made a bold attempt and failed.

 [FN#25] i.e. flatterers.

 [FN#26] In one matter Moslems contrast strongly with Christians, by most scrupulously following the example of their law-giver: hence they are the model Conservatives. But (European) Christendom is here, as in other things, curiously contradictory: for instance, it still keeps a "Feast of the Circumcision," and practically holds circumcision in horror. Eastern Christians, however, have not wholly abolished it, and the Abyssinians, who find it a useful hygenic precaution, still practise it. For ulcers, syphilis and other venereals which are readily cured in Egypt become dangerous in the Highlands of Ethiopia.

 [FN#27] Arab. "Sabab," the orig. and material sense of the word; hence "a cause," etc.

 [FN#28] Thus he broke his promise to his father, and it is insinuated that retribution came upon him.

 [FN#29] "O Pilgrim" (Ya Hájj) is a polite address even to those who have not pilgrimaged. The feminine "Hájjah" (in Egypt pronounced "Hággeh") is similarly used.

 [FN#30] Arab. "usúl"=roots, i.e. I have not forgotten my business.

 [FN#31] Moslems from Central and Western North Africa. (Pilgrimage i. 261; iii. 7, etc); the "Jabarti" is the Moslem Abyssinian.

 [FN#32] This is a favourite bit of chaff and is to be lengthened out almost indefinitely e.g. every brown thing is not civet nor every shining thing a diamond; every black thing is not charcoal nor every white chalk; every red thing is not a ruby nor every yellow a topaz; every long-necked thing is not a camel, etc., etc., etc.

 [FN#33] He gives him the name of his grandfather; a familiar usage.

 [FN#34] Arab. "Ma'janah," a place for making unbaked bricks (Tob=Span. Adobe) with chaff and bruised or charred straw. The use of this article in rainless lands dates from ages immemorial, and formed the outer walls of the Egyptian temple.

 [FN#35] Arab. "Barsh," a bit of round matting used by the poor as a seat. The Wazir thus showed that he had been degraded to the condition of a mat-maker.

 [FN#36] The growth (a Poa of two species) which named Wady Halfá (vulg. "Halfah"), of which the home public has of late heard perhaps a trifle too much. Burckhardt (Prov. 226) renders it "dry reeds"—-incorrectly enough.

 [FN#37] This "Háshimi" vein, as they call it, was an abnormal development between the eyes of the house of Abbas, inherited from the great- grandfather of the Prophet; and the latter had it remarkably large, swelling in answer and battle-rage. The text, however, may read "The sweat of wrath," etc.

 [FN#38] Torrens and Payne prefer "Ilm"=knowledge. Lane has more correctly "Alam"=a sign, a flag.

 [FN#39] The lines were in Night xi.: I have quoted Torrens (p. 379) for a change.

 [FN#40] Still customary in Tigris-Euphrates land, where sea-craft has not changed since the days of Xisisthrus-Noah, and long before.

 [FN#41] To cool the contents.

 [FN#42] Hence the Khedivial Palace near Cairo "Kasr al-Nuzhah;" literally, "of Delights;" one of those flimsy new-Cairo buildings which contrast so marvellously with the architecture of ancient and even of mediæval Egypt, and which are covering the land with modern ruins. Compare Mohammed Ali's mosque in the citadel with the older Sultan Hasan. A popular tale is told that, when the conquering Turk, Yáwúz Sultan Selim, first visited Cairo, they led him to Mosque Al-Ghúrí. "This is a splendid Ká'ah (saloon)!" quoth he. When he entered Sultan Hasan, he exclaimed, "This is a citadel!"; but after inspecting the Mosque Al-Mu'ayyad he cried, "'Tis a veritable place of prayer, a fit stead for the Faithful to adore the Eternal!"

 [FN#43] Arab. gardeners are very touchy on this point. A friend of mine was on a similar occasion addressed, in true Egyptian lingo, by an old Adam-son, "Ya ibn al-Kalb! beta'mil ay?" (O dog-son, what art thou up to?).

 [FN#44] "The green palm-stick is of the trees of Paradise;" say the Arabs in Solomonic style but not Solomonic words: so our "Spare the rod," etc.

 [FN#45] Wayfarers, travellers who have a claim on the kindness of those at home: hence Abd al-Rahman al-Burai sings in his famous Ode:--

He hath claim on the dwellers in the places of their birth, * Whoso wandereth the world, for he lacketh him a home.

It is given in my "First Footsteps in East Africa" (pp. 53-55).

 [FN#46] The good old man treated the youth like a tired child.

 [FN#47] In Moslem writings the dove and turtle-dove are mostly feminine, whereas the female bird is always mute and only the male sings to summon or to amuse his mate.

 [FN#48] An unsavoury comparison of the classical Narcissus with the yellow white of a nigger's eyes.

 [FN#49] A tree whose coals burn with fierce heat: Al-Hariri (Vth Seance). This Artemisia is like the tamarisk but a smaller growth and is held to be a characteristic of the Arabian Desert. A Badawi always hails with pleasure the first sight of the Ghazá, after he has sojourned for a time away from his wilds. Mr. Palgrave (i. 38) describes the "Ghadá" as an Euphorbia with a woody stem often 5-6 feet high and slender, flexible green twigs (?), "forming a feathery tuft, not ungraceful to the eye, while it affords some shelter to the traveller, and food to his camels."

 [FN#50] Arab. "Sal'am"=S(alla) A(llah) a(layhi) was S(allam); A(llah) b(less) h(im) a(nd) k(eep)=Allah keep him and assain!

 [FN#51] The ass is held to be ill-omened. I have noticed the braying elsewhere. According to Mandeville the Devil did not enter the Ark with the Ass, but he left it when Noah said "Benedicite." In his day (A.D. 1322) and in that of Benjamin of Tudela, people had seen and touched the ship on Ararat, the Judi (Gordiæi) mountains; and this dates from Berosus (S.C. 250) who, of course, refers to the Ark of Xisisthrus. See Josephus Ant. i. 3, 6; and Rodwell (Koran, pp. 65, 530).

 [FN#52] As would happen at a "Zikr," rogation or litany. Those who wish to see how much can be made of the subject will read "Pearls of the Faith, or Islam's Rosary, being the ninety-nine beautiful names of Allah" (Asmá-el-Husna) etc. by Edwin Arnold: London, Trübner, 1883.

 [FN#53] i.e. the Sáki, cup-boy or cup-bearer. "Moon-faced," as I have shown elsewhere, is no compliment in English, but it is in Persian and Arabic.

 [FN#54] He means we are "Záhirí," plain honest Moslems, not "Bátiní," gnostics (ergo reprobates) and so forth, who disregard all appearances and external ordinances. This suggests his opinion of Shaykh Ibrahim and possibly refers to Ja'afar's suspected heresy.

 [FN#55] This worthy will be noticed in a subsequent page.

 [FN#56] Arab. "Lisám," the end of the "Kufiyah," or head-kerchief passed over the face under the eyes and made fast on the other side. This mouth-veil serves as a mask (eyes not being recognisable) and defends from heat, cold and thirst. I also believe that hooding the eyes with this article, Badawi-fashion, produces a sensation of coolness, at any rate a marked difference of apparent temperature; somewhat like a pair of dark spectacles or looking at the sea from a sandy shore. (Pilgrimage i., 210 and 346.) The woman's "Lisám" (chin-veil) or Yashmak is noticed in i., 337.

 [FN#57] Most characteristic is this familiarity between the greatest man then in the world and his pauper subject. The fisherman alludes to a practise of Al-Islman, instituted by Caliph Omar, that all rulers should work at some handicraft in order to spare the public treasure. Hence Sultan Mu'ayyad of Cairo was a calligrapher who sold his handwriting, and his example was followed by the Turkish Sultans Mahmúd, Abd al-Majíd and Abd al-Azíz. German royalties prefer carpentering and Louis XVI, watch-making.

 [FN#58] There would be nothing singular in this request. The democracy of despotism levels all men outside the pale of politics and religion.

 [FN#59] "Wa'lláhi tayyib!" an exclamation characteristic of the Egyptian Moslem.

 [FN#60] The pretended fisherman's name Karím=the Generous.

 [FN#61] Such an act of generosity would appear to Europeans well-nigh insanity, but it is quite in Arab manners. Witness the oft-quoted tale of Hatim and his horse. As a rule the Arab is the reverse of generous, contrasting badly, in this point, with his cousin the Jew: hence his ideal of generosity is of the very highest. "The generous (i.e. liberal) is Allah's friend, aye, though he be a sinner; and the miser is Allah's foe, aye, though he be a saint!" Indian Moslems call a skin-flint Makhi-chús = fly-sucker. (Pilgrimage i. 242.)

 [FN#62] Arab. "Ammá ba'ad" or (Wa ba'ad), an initiatory formula attributed to Koss ibn Sa'idat al-Iyadi, bishop of Najrán (the town in Al-Yaman which D'Herbelot calls Negiran) and a famous preacher in Mohammed's day, hence "more eloquent than Koss" (Maydání, Arab. Prov., 189). He was the first who addressed letters with the incept, "from A. to B."; and the first who preached from a pulpit and who leant on a sword or a staff when discoursing. Many Moslems date Ammá ba'ad from the Prophet David, relying upon a passage of the Koran (63xviii. 19).

 [FN#63] Arab. "Nusf"=half (a dirham): vulgarly pronounced "nuss," and synonymous with the Egypt. "Faddah" (=silver), the Greek "Asper," and the Turkish "paráh." It is the smallest Egyptian coin, made of very base metal and, there being forty to the piastre, it is worth nearly a quarter of a farthing.

 [FN#64] The too literal Torrens and Lane make the Caliph give the gardener-lad the clothes in which he was then clad, forgetting, like the author or copier, that he wore the fisherman's lousy suit.

 [FN#65] In sign of confusion, disappointment and so forth: not "biting his nails," which is European and utterly un-Asiatic.

 [FN#66] See lines like these in Night xiii. (i. 136); the sentiment is trite.

 [FN#67] The Arab will still stand under his ruler's palace and shout aloud to attract his attention. Sayyid Sa'íd known as the "Imán of Muskat" used to encourage the patriarchal practice. Mohammed repeatedly protested against such unceremonious conduct (Koran xciv. 11, etc.). The "three times of privacy" (Koran cv. 57) are before the dawn prayer, during the Siesta (noon) and after the even-prayer.

 [FN#68] The Judges of the four orthodox schools.

 [FN#69] That none might see it or find it ever after.

 [FN#70] Arab. "Khatt Sharíf"=a royal autographical letter: the term is still preserved in Turkey, but Europeans will write "Hatt."

 [FN#71] Meaning "Little tom-cat;" a dim. of "Kitt" vulg. Kutt or Gutt.

 [FN#72] Arab. "Matmúrah"—-the Algerine "Matamor"—-a "silo," made familiar to England by the invention of "Ensilage."

 [FN#73] The older "Mustapha"=Mohammed. This Intercession-doctrine is fiercely disputed. (Pilgrimage ii. 77.) The Apostle of Al-Islam seems to have been unable to make up his mind upon the subject: and modern opinion amongst Moslems is apparently borrowed from the Christians.

 [FN#74] Lane (i. 486) curiously says, "The place of the stagnation of blood:" yet he had translated the word aright in the Introduction (i. 41). I have noticed that the Nat'a is made like the "Sufrah," of well-tanned leather, with rings in the periphery, so that a thong passed through turns it into a bag. The Sufrah used for provisions is usually yellow, with a black border and small pouches for knives or spoons. (Pilgrimage i. 111.)

 [FN#75] This improbable detail shows the Caliph's greatness.

 [FN#76] "Cousin" is here a term of familiarity, our "coz."

 [FN#77] i.e. without allowing them a moment's delay to change clothes.

 [FN#78] i.e. according to my nature, birth, blood, de race.

 [FN#79] Our "Job." The English translators of the Bible, who borrowed Luther's system of transliteration (of A.D. 1522), transferred into English the German "j" which has the sound of "i" or "y"; intending us to pronounce Yacob (or Yakob), Yericho, Yimnites, Yob (or Hiob) and Yudah. Tyndall, who copied Luther (A.D. 1525-26), preserved the true sound by writing lacob, Ben Iamin and Iudas. But his successors unfortunately returned to the German; the initial I, having from the xiii century been ornamentally lengthened and bent leftwards, became a consonant. The public adopted the vernacular sound of "j" (da) and hence our language and our literature are disgraced by such barbarisms as "Jehovah" and "Jesus"; Dgehovah and Dgeesus for Yehovah and Yesus. Future generations of school-teachers may remedy the evil; meanwhile we are doomed for the rest of our days to hear

 Gee-rusalem! Gee-rusalem! etc.

Nor is there one word to be said in favour of the corruption except that, like the Protestant mispronunciation of Latin and the Erasmian ill-articulation of Greek, it has become English, and has lent its little aid in dividing the Britons from the rest of the civilised world.

 [FN#80] The moon, I repeat, is masculine in the so-called "Semitic" tongues.

 [FN#81] i.e. camel loads, about lbs. 300; and for long journeys lbs. 250.

 [FN#82] Arab. "Janázah," so called only when carrying a corpse; else Na'ash, Sarír or Tábút: Irán being the large hearse on which chiefs are borne. It is made of plank or stick work; but there are several varieties. (Lane, M. E. chaps. 83viii.)

 [FN#83] It is meritorious to accompany the funeral cortège of a Moslem even for a few paces.

 [FN#84] Otherwise he could not have joined in the prayers.

 [FN#85] Arab. "Halwá" made of sugar, cream, almonds, etc. That of Maskat is famous throughout the East.

 [FN#86] i.e. "Camphor" to a negro, as we say "Snowball," by the figure antiphrase.

 [FN#87] "Little Good Luck," a dim. form of "bakht"=luck, a Persian word naturalized in Egypt.

 [FN#88] There are, as I have shown, not a few cannibal tribes in Central Africa and these at times find their way into the slave market.

 [FN#89] i.e. After we bar the door.

 [FN#90] Arab. "Jáwísh" from Turk. Cháwúsh, Chiaoosh, a sergeant, poursuivant, royal messenger. I would suggest that this is the word "Shálish" or "Jálish" in Al-Siynti's History of the Caliphs (p. 501) translated by Carlyle "milites," by Schultens "Sagittarius" and by Jarett "picked troops."

 [FN#91] This familiarity with blackamoor slave-boys is common in Egypt and often ends as in the story: Egyptian blood is sufficiently mixed with negro to breed inclination for miscegenation. But here the girl was wickedly neglected by her mother at such an age as ten.

 [FN#92] Arab. "Farj"; hence a facetious designation of the other sex is "Zawi'l-furuj" (grammatically Zawátu'l- furúj)=habentes rimam, slit ones.

 [FN#93] This ancient and venerable practice of inspecting the marriage-sheet is still religiously preserved in most parts of the East, and in old-fashioned Moslem families. It is publicly exposed in the Harem to prove that the "domestic calamity" (the daughter) went to her husband a clean maid. Also the general idea is that no blood will impose upon the exerts, or jury of matrons, except that of a pigeon-poult which exactly resembles hymeneal blood-- when not subjected to the microscope. This belief is universal in Southern Europe and I have heard of it in England. Further details will be given in Night ccxi.

 [FN#94] "Agha" Turk.=sir, gentleman, is, I have said, politely addressed to a eunuch.

 [FN#95] As Bukhayt tells us he lost only his testes, consequently his erectio et distensio penis was as that of a boy before puberty and it would last as long as his heart and circulation kept sound. Hence the eunuch who preserves his penis is much prized in the Zenanah where some women prefer him to the entire man, on account of his long performance of the deed of kind. Of this more in a future page.

 [FN#96] It is or rather was the custom in Egypt and Syria to range long rows of fine China bowls along the shelves running round the rooms at the height of six or seven feet, and they formed a magnificent cornice. I bought many of them at Damascus till the people, learning their value, asked prohibitive prices.

 [FN#97] The tale is interesting as well as amusing, excellently describing the extravagance still practiced in middle-class Moslem families on the death of the pater familias. I must again note that Arab women are much more unwilling to expose the back of the head covered by the "Tarhah" (head-veil) than the face, which is hidden by the "Burke" or nose bag.

 [FN#98] The usual hysterical laughter of this nervous race.

 [FN#99] Here the slave refuses to be set free and starve. For a master so to do without ample reasons is held disgraceful. I well remember the weeping and wailing throughout Sind when an order from Sir Charles Napier set free the negroes whom British philanthropy thus doomed to endure if not to die of hunger.

 [FN#100] Manumission, which is founded upon Roman law, is an extensive subject discussed in the Hidáyah and other canonical works. The slave here lays down the law incorrectly but his claim shows his truly "nigger" impudence.

 [FN#101] This is quite true to nature. The most remarkable thing in the wild central African is his enormous development of "destructiveness." At Zanzibar I never saw a slave break a glass or plate without a grin or a chuckle of satisfaction.

 [FN#102] Arab. "Khassá-ni"; Khusyatáni (vulg.) being the testicles, also called "bayzatán" the two eggs) a double entendre which has given rise to many tales. For instance in the witty Persian book "Dozd o Kazi" (The Thief and the Judge) a footpad strips the man of learning and offers to return his clothes if he can ask him a puzzle in law or religion. The Kazi (in folk-lore mostly a fool) fails, and his wife bids him ask the man to supper for a trial of wits on the same condition. She begins with compliments and ends by producing five eggs which she would have him distribute equally amongst the three; and, when he is perplexed, she gives one to each of the men taking three for herself. Whereupon the "Dozd" wends his way, having lost his booty as his extreme stupidity deserved. In the text the eunuch, Kafur, is made a "Sandal" or smooth-shaven, so that he was of no use to women.

 [FN#103] Arab. "Khara," the lowest possible word: Yá Khara! is the commonest of insults, used also by modest women. I have heard one say it to her son.

 [FN#104] Arab. "Kámah," a measure of length, a fathom, also called "Bá'a." Both are omitted in that sadly superficial book, Lane's Modern Egyptians, App. B.

 [FN#105] Names of her slave-girls which mean (in order), Garden-bloom, Dawn (or Beautiful), Tree o' Pearl (P. N. of Saladin's wife), Light of (right) Direction, Star o' the Morn Lewdness (= Shahwah, I suppose this is a chaff), Delight, Sweetmeat and Miss Pretty.

 [FN#106] This mode of disposing of a rival was very common in Harems. But it had its difficulties and on the whole the river was (and is) preferred.

 [FN#107] An Eastern dislikes nothing more than drinking in a dim dingy place: the brightest lights seem to add to his "drinkitite."

 [FN#108] He did not sleep with her because he suspected some palace-mystery which suggested prudence, she also had her reasons.

 [FN#109] This as called in Egypt "Allah." (Lane M. E. chaps. i.)

 [FN#110] It would be a broad ribbon-like band upon which the letters could be worked.

 [FN#111] In the Arab. "he cried." These "Yes, Yes!" and "No! No!" trifles are very common amongst the Arabs.

 [FN#112] Arab. "Maragha" lit. rubbed his face on them like a fawning dog. Ghanim is another "softy" lover, a favourite character in Arab tales; and by way of contrast, the girl is masterful enough.

 [FN#113] Because the Abbaside Caliphs descend from Al-Abbas, paternal uncle of Mohammed, text means more explicitly, "O descendant of the Prophet's uncle!"

 [FN#114] The most terrible part of a belle passion in the East is that the beloved will not allow her lover leave of absence for an hour.

 [FN#115] It is hard to preserve these wretched puns. In the original we have "O spray (or branch) of capparis-shrub (aráki) which has been thinned of leaf and fruit (tujna, i.e., whose fruit, the hymen, has been plucked before and not by me) I see thee (aráka) against me sinning (tajní).

 [FN#116] Apparently the writer forgets that the Abbaside banners and dress were black, originally a badge of mourning for the Imám Ibrahim bin Mohammed put to death by the Ommiade Caliph Al-Marwan. The modern Egyptian mourning, like the old Persian, is indigo-blue of the darkest; but, as before noted, the custom is by no means universal.

 [FN#117] Koran, chaps. iv. In the East as elsewhere the Devil quotes Scripture.

 [FN#118] A servant returning from a journey shows his master due honour by appearing before him in travelling suit and uncleaned.

 [FN#119] The first name means "Rattan", the second "Willow wand," from the "Bán" or "Khiláf" the Egyptian willow (Salix Ægyptiaca Linn.) vulgarly called "Safsáf." Forskal holds the "Bán" to be a different variety.

 [FN#120] Arab. "Ta'ám," which has many meanings: in mod. parlance it would signify millet holcus seed.

 [FN#121] i.e. "I well know how to deal with him."

 [FN#122] The Pen (title of the Koranic chaps. Ixviii.) and the Preserved Tablet (before explained).

 [FN#123] These plunderings were sanctioned by custom. But a few years ago, when the Turkish soldiers mutinied about arrears of pay (often delayed for years) the governing Pasha would set fire to the town and allow the men to loot what they pleased during a stated time. Rochet (soi-disant D'Hericourt) amusingly describes this manoeuvre of the Turkish Governor of Al-Hodaydah in the last generation. (Pilgrimage iii. 381.)

 [FN#124] Another cenotaph whose use was to enable women to indulge in their pet pastime of weeping and wailing in company.

 [FN#125] The lodging of pauper travellers, as the chapel in Iceland is of the wealthy. I have often taken benefit of the mosque, but as a rule it is unpleasant, the matting being not only torn but over-populous. Juvenal seems to allude to the Jewish Synagogue similarly used: "in quâ te quæro proseuchâ"? (iii. 296) and in Acts iii. we find the lame, blind and impotent in the Temple-porch.

 [FN#126] This foul sort of vermin is supposed to be bred by perspiration. It is an epoch in the civilised traveller's life when he catches his first louse.

 [FN#127] The Moslem peasant is a kind hearted man and will make many sacrifices for a sick stranger even of another creed. It is a manner of "pundonor" with the village.

 [FN#128] Such treatment of innocent women was only too common under the Caliphate and in contemporary Europe.

 [FN#129] This may also mean, "And Heaven will reward thee," but camel-men do not usually accept any drafts upon futurity.

 [FN#130] He felt that he was being treated like a corpse.

 [FN#131] This hatred of the Hospital extends throughout Southern Europe, even in places where it is not justified.

 [FN#132] The importance of the pillow (wisádah or makhaddah) to the sick man is often recognised in The Nights. "He took to his pillow" is = took to his bed.

 [FN#133] i.e in order that the reverend men, who do not render such suit and service gratis, might pray for him.

 [FN#134] The reader will notice in The Nights the frequent mention of these physical prognostications, with which mesmerists are familiar.

 [FN#135] The Pers. name of the planet Saturn in the Seventh Heaven. Arab. "Zuhal"; the Kiun or Chiun of Amos vi. 26.

 [FN#136] i.e. "Pardon me if I injured thee"-- a popular phrase.

 [FN#137] A "seduction," a charmer. The double-entendre has before been noticed.

 [FN#138] This knightly tale, the longest in the Nights (xliv.--cxlv.), about one-eighth of the whole, does not appear in the Bres. Edit. Lane, who finds it "objectionable," reduces it to two of its episodes, Azíz-cum-Azízah and Táj al-Mulúk. On the other hand it has been converted into a volume (8vo, pp. 240) "Scharkan, Conte Arabe," etc. Traduit par M. Asselan Riche, etc. Paris: Dondey-Dupré. 1829. It has its longueurs and at times is longsome enough; but it is interesting as a comparison between the chivalry of Al-Islam and European knight-errantry. Although all the characters are fictitious the period is evidently in the early crusading days. Cæsarea, the second capital of Palestine, taken during the Caliphate of Omar (A.H. 19) and afterwards recovered, was fortified in A.H. 353 = 963 as a base against the Arabs by the Emperor Phocas, the Arab. "Nakfúr" i.e. Nicephorus. In A.H. 498=1104, crusading craft did much injury by plundering merchantmen between Egypt and Syria, to which allusion is found in the romance. But the story teller has not quite made up his mind about which Cæsarea he is talking, and M. Riche tells us that Césarée is a "ville de la Mauritanie, en Afrique" (p. 20).

 [FN#139] The fifth Ommiade Caliph reign. A.H. 65-86 = 685-704.

 [FN#140] This does not merely mean that no one was safe from his wrath: or, could approach him in the heat of fight: it is a reminiscence of the masterful "King Kulayb," who established game-laws in his dominions and would allow no man to approach his camp-fire. Moreover the Jinn lights a fire to decoy travellers, but if his victim be bold enough to brave him, he invites him to take advantage of the heat.

 [FN#141] China.

 [FN#142] The Jaxartes and the Bactrus (names very loosely applied).

 [FN#143] In full "Sharrun kána" i.e. an evil (Sharr) has come to being (kána) that is, "bane to the foe" a pagan and knightly name. The hero of the Romance "Al-Dalhamah" is described as a bitter gourd (colocynth), a viper, a calamity.

 [FN#144] This is a Moslem law (Koran chaps. iv. bodily borrowed from the Talmud) which does not allow a man to marry one wife unless he can carnally satisfy her. Moreover he must distribute his honours equally and each wife has a right to her night unless she herself give it up. This was the case even with the spouses of the Prophet; and his biography notices several occasions when his wives waived their rights in favour of one another M. Riche kindly provides the King with la piquante francaise (p. 15).

 [FN#145] So the celebrated mosque in Stambul, famed for being the largest church in the world is known to the Greeks as "Agia (pron. Aya) Sophia" and to Moslems as "Aye Sofíyeh" (Holy Wisdom) i.e. the Logos or Second Person of the Trinity (not a Saintess). The sending a Christian girl as a present to a Moslem would, in these days, be considered highly scandalous. But it was done by the Mukaukis or Coptic Governor of Egypt (under Heraclius) who of course hated the Greeks. This worthy gave two damsels to Mohammed; one called Sírín and the other Máriyah (Maria) whom the Prophet reserved for his especial use and whose abode is still shown at Al-Medinah. The Rev. Doctor Badger (loc. cit. p. 972) gives the translation of an epistle by Mohammed to this Mukaukis, written in the Cufic character ( ? ?) and sealed "Mohammed, The Apostle of Allah." My friend seems to believe that it is an original, but upon this subject opinions will differ. It is, however, exceedingly interesting, beginning with "Bismillah," etc., and ending (before the signature) with a quotation from the Koran (iii. 57); and it may be assumed as a formula addressee to foreign potentates by a Prophet who had become virtually "King of Arabia."

 [FN#146] This prayer before "doing the deed of kind" is, I have said, Moslem as well Christian.

 [FN#147] Exodus i. 16, quoted by Lane (M. E., chaps. xxvii.). Torrens in his Notes cites Drayton's "Moon-calf':--

   Bring forth the birth-stool--no, let it alone;
   She is so far beyond all compass grown,
   Some other new device us needs must stead,
   Or else she never can be brought to bed.

It is the "groaning-chair" of Poor Robin's Almanac (1676) and we find it alluded to in Boccaccio, the classical sedile which according to scoffers has formed the papal chair (a curule seat) ever since the days of Pope Joan, when it has been held advisable for one of the Cardinals to ascertain that His Holiness possesses all the instruments of virility. This "Kursí al-wiládah" is of peculiar form on which the patient is seated. A most interesting essay might be written upon the various positions preferred during delivery, e.g. the wild Irish still stand on all fours, like the so-called "lower animals." Amongst the Moslems of Waday, etc., a cord is hung from the top of the hut, and the woman in labour holds on to it standing with her legs apart, till the midwife receives the child.

 [FN#148] Some Orientalists call "lullilooing" the trilling cry, which is made by raising the voice to its highest pitch and breaking it by a rapid succession of touches on the palate with the tongue-tip, others "Ziraleet" and Zagaleet, and one traveller tells us that it began at the marriage-festival of Isaac and Rebecca (!). Arabs term it classically "Tahlíl" and vulgarly "Zaghrutah" (Plur. Zaghárit) and Persians "Kil." Finally in Don Quixote we have "Lelilies," the battle-cry of the Moors (Duffield iii. 289). Dr. Buchanan likens it to a serpent uttering human sounds, but the good missionary heard it at the festival of Jagannath. (Pilgrimage iii. 197 )

 [FN#149] i.e. "Light of the Place" (or kingdom) and "Delight of the Age."

 [FN#150] It is utterly absurd to give the old heroic Persian name Afridun or Furaydun, the destroyer of Zohák or Zahhák to a Greek, but such anachronisms are characteristic of The Nights and are evidently introduced on purpose. See Boccaccio, ix. 9.

 [FN#151] Arab. "Yunán" lit. Ionia, which applies to all Greece, insular and continental, especially to ancient Greece.

 [FN#152] In 1870 I saw at Sidon a find of some hundreds of gold "Philippi" and "Alexanders."

 [FN#153] M. Riche has (p. 21), "Ces talismans travaillés par le ciseau du célèbre Califaziri," adding in a note, "Je pense que c'est un sculpteur Arabe."

 [FN#154] This periphrase, containing what seems to us a useless negative, adds emphasis in Arabic.

 [FN#155] This bit of geographical information is not in the Bull Edit.

 [FN#156] In Pers. = a tooth, the popular word.

 [FN#157] This preliminary move, called in Persian Nakl-i Safar, is generally mentioned. So the Franciscan monks in California, when setting out for a long journey through the desert, marched three times round the convent and pitched tents for the night under its walls.

 [FN#158] In Arab. "Khazinah" or "Khaznah" lit. a treasure, representing 1,000 "Kís" or purses (each=£5). The sum in the text is 7,000 purses X 5=£35,000.

 [FN#159] Travellers often prefer such sites because they are sheltered from the wind, and the ground is soft for pitching tents; but many have come to grief from sudden torrents following rain.

 [FN#160] Arab "Ghábah" not a forest in our sense of the word, but a place where water sinks and the trees (mostly Mimosas), which elsewhere are widely scattered, form a comparatively dense growth and collect in thickets. These are favourite places for wild beasts during noon-heats.

 [FN#161] At various times in the East Jews and Christians were ordered to wear characteristic garments, especially the Zunnár or girdle.

 [FN#162] The description is borrowed from the Coptic Convent, which invariably has an inner donjon or keep. The oldest monastery in the world is Mar Antonios (St. Anthony the Hermit) not far from Suez. (Gold Mines of Midian, p. 85.)

 [FN#163] "Dawáhí," plur. of Dáhiyah = a mishap. The title means "Mistress of Misfortunes" or Queen of Calamities (to the enemy); and the venerable lady, as will be seen, amply deserved her name, which is pronounced Zát al-Dawáhí.

 [FN#164] Arab. "Kunfuz"=hedgehog or porcupine.

 [FN#165] These flowers of speech are mere familiarities, not insults. In societies where the sexes are separated speech becomes exceedingly free. "Étourdie que vous êtes," says M. Riche, toning down the text.

 [FN#166] Arab. "Zirt," a low word. The superlative "Zarrát" (fartermost) or, "Abu Zirt" (Father of farts) is a facetious term among the bean-eating Fellahs and a deadly insult amongst the Badawin (Night ccccx.). The latter prefer the word Taggáa (Pilgrimage iii. 84). We did not disdain the word in farthingale=pet en air.

 [FN#167] Arab. "kicked" him, i.e. with the sharp corner of the shovel-stirrup. I avoid such expressions as "spurring" and "pricking over the plain," because apt to give a wrong idea.

 [FN#168] Arab. "Allaho Akbar!" the classical Moslem slogan.

 [FN#169] Arab horses are never taught to leap, so she was quite safe on the other side of a brook nine feet broad.

 [FN#170] "Batrík" (vulg. Bitrík)=patricius, a title given to Christian knights who commanded ten thousand men; the Tarkhan (or Nobb) heading four thousand, and the Kaumas (Arab. Káid) two hundred. It must not be confounded with Batrak (or Batrik)=patriarcha. (Lane's Lex.)

 [FN#171] Arab. "Kázi al-Kuzát," a kind of Chief Justice or Chancellor. The office wag established under the rule of Harun al Rashid, who so entitled Abú Yúsuf Ya'akab al-Ansári: therefore the allusion is anachronistic. The same Caliph also caused the Olema to dress as they do still.

 [FN#172] The allusion is Koranic: "O men, if ye be in doubt concerning the resurrection, consider that He first created you of the dust of the ground (Adam), afterwards of seed" (chaps. xxii.). But the physiological ideas of the Koran are curious. It supposes that the Mani or male semen is in the loins and that of women in the breast bone (chaps Ixxxvi.); that the mingled seed of the two (chaps. Ixxvi.) fructifies the ovary and that the child is fed through the navel with menstruous blood, hence the cessation of the catamenia. Barzoi (Kalilah and Dímnah) says:-- "Man's seed, falling into the woman's womb, is mixed with her seed and her blood: when it thickens and curdles the Spirit moves it and it turns about like liquid cheese; then it solidifies, its arteries are formed, its limbs constructed and its joints distinguished. If the babe is a male, his face is placed towards his mother's back; if a female, towards her belly." (P. 262, Mr. L G.N. Keith- Falconer's translation.) But there is a curious prolepsis of the spermatozoa-theory. We read (Koran chaps. vii.), "Thy Lord drew forth their posterity from the loins of the sons of Adam;" and the commentators say that Allah stroked Adam's back and extracted from his loins all his posterity, which shall ever be, in the shape of small ants; these confessed their dependence on God and were dismissed to return whence they came." From this fiction it appears (says Sale) that the doctrine of pre-existence is not unknown to the Mohammedans, and there is some little conformity between it and the modern theory of generatio ex animalculis in semine marium. The poets call this Yaum-i-Alast = the Day of Am-I-not (-your Lord)? which Sir William Jones most unhappily translated "Art thou not with thy Lord ?" (Alasta bi Rabbi- kum); fand they produce a grand vision of unembodied spirits appearing in countless millions before their Creator.

 [FN#173] The usual preliminary of a wrestling bout.

 [FN#174] In Eastern wrestling this counts as a fair fail. So Ajax fell on his back with Ulysses on his breast. (Iliad xxxii., 700, etc.)

 [FN#175] So biting was allowed amongst the Greeks in the {greek letters}, the final struggle on the ground.

 [FN#176] Supposed to be names of noted wrestlers. "Kayim" (not El-Kim as Torrens has it) is a term now applied to a juggler or "professor" of legerdemain who amuses people in the streets with easy tricks. (Lane, M. E., chaps. xx.)

 [FN#177] Lit. "laughed in his face" which has not the unpleasant meaning it bears in English.

 [FN#178] Arab. "Abu riyáh"=a kind of child's toy. It is our "bull-roarer" well known in Australia and parts of Africa.

 [FN#179] The people of the region south of the Caspian which is called "Sea of Daylam." It has a long history; for which see D'Herbelot, s.v. "Dilem."

 [FN#180] Coptic convents in Egypt still affect these drawbridges over the keep-moat.

 [FN#181] Koran iv., xxii. etc., meaning it is lawful to marry women taken in war after the necessary purification although their husbands be still living. This is not permitted with a free woman who is a True Believer. I have noted that the only concubine slave-girl mentioned in the Koran are these "captives possessed by the right hand."

 [FN#182] The Amazonian dame is a favourite in folk-lore and is an ornament to poetry from the Iliad to our modern day. Such heroines, apparently unknown to the Pagan Arabs, were common in the early ages of Al-Islam as Ockley and Gibbon prove, and that the race is not extinct may be seen in my Pilgrimage (iii. 55) where the sister of Ibn Rumi resolved to take blood revenge for her brother.

 [FN#183] And Solomon said, "O nobles, which of you will bring me her throne ?" A terrible genius (i.e. an If rit of the Jinn named Dhakwan or the notorious Sakhr) said, " I will bring it unto thee before thou arise from thy seat (of justice); for I am able to perform it, and may be trusted" (Koran, xxvii. 38-39). Balkís or Bilkís (says the Durrat al-Ghawwás) daughter of Hozád bin Sharhabíl, twenty-second in the list of the rulers of Al- Yaman, according to some murdered her husband, and became, by Moslem ignorance, the Biblical " Queen of Sheba." The Abyssinians transfer her from Arabian Saba to Ethiopia and make her the mother by Solomon of Menelek, their proto-monarch; thus claiming for their royalties an antiquity compared with which all reigning houses in the world are of yesterday. The dates of the Tabábi'ah or Tobbas prove that the Bilkis of history ruled Al- Yaman in the early Christian era.

 [FN#184] Arab. "Fass," fiss or fuss; the gem set in a ring; also applied to a hillock rounded en cabochon. In The Nights it is used to signify "a fine gem."

 [FN#185] This prominence of the glutæi muscles is always insisted upon, because it is supposed to promise well in a bed-fellow. In Somali land where the people are sub- steatopygous, a rich young man, who can afford such luxury, will have the girls drawn up in line and choose her to wife who projects furthest behind

 [FN#186] The "bull" is only half mine.

 [FN#187] A favourite Arab phrase, the "hot eye" is one full of tears.

 [FN#188] i.e., "Coral," coral branch, a favourite name for a slave-girl, especially a negress. It is the older "Morgiana." I do not see why Preston in Al-Haríni's "Makamah (Séance) of Singar" renders it pearls, because Golius gives "small pearls," when it is evidently "coral." Richardson (Dissert. xlviii.) seems to me justified in finding the Pari (fairy) Marjan of heroic Persian history reflected in the Fairy Morgain who earned off King Arthur after the battle of Camelon.

 [FN#189] Arab. "'Ud Jalaki"=Jalak or Jalik being a poetical and almost obsolete name of Damascus.

 [FN#190] The fountain in Paradise whose water shall be drunk with "pure" wine mixed and sealed with musk (for clay). It is so called because it comes from the "Sanam" (Sanima, to be high) boss or highest ridge of the Moslem Heaven (Koran lv. 78 and lxxxiii. 27). Mr. Rodwell says "it is conveyed to the highest apartments in the Pavilions of Paradise." (?)

 [FN#191] This "hysterical" temperament is not rare even amongst the bravest Arabs.

 [FN#192] An idea evidently derived from the Æolipyla (olla animatoria) the invention of Hero Alexandrinus, which showed that the ancient Egyptians could apply the motive force of steam.

 [FN#193] Kuthayyir ibn Abi Jumah, a poet and far-famed Ráwí or Tale-reciter, mentioned by Ibn Khallikan he lived at Al-Medinah and sang the attractions of one Azzah, hence his soubriquet Sáhib (lover of) Azzah. As he died in A. H. 105 (=726), his presence here is a gross anachronism the imaginary Sharrkan flourished before the Caliphate of Abd al-Malik bin Marwán A. H. 65-86.

 [FN#194] Jamíl bin Ma'amar, a poet and lover contemporary with Al-Kuthayrir.

 [FN#195] Arab. "Tafazzal," a word of frequent use in conversation="favour me," etc.

 [FN#196] The word has a long history. From the Gr. {greek letters} or {greek letters} is the Lat. stibium; while the Low Latin "antimonium" and the Span. Althimod are by metathesis for Al-Ithmid. The dictionaries define the substance as a stone from which antimony is prepared, but the Arabs understand a semi-mythical mineral of yellow colour which enters into the veins of the eyes and gives them Iynx-like vision. The famous Anz nicknamed Zarká (the blue eyed) of Yamámah (Province) used it; and, according to some, invented Kohl. When her (protohistoric) tribe Jadis had destroyed all the rival race of Tasm, except Ribáh ibn Murrah; the sole survivor fled to the Tobba of Al-Yaman, who sent a host to avenge him. The king commanded his Himyarites to cut tree-boughs and use them as screens (again Birnam wood). Zarká from her Utum, or peel-tower, saw the army three marches off and cried, "O folk, either trees or Himyar are coming upon you !" adding, in Rajaz verse:--

I swear by Allah that trees creep onward, or that Himyar beareth somewhat which he draweth along!

She then saw a man mending his sandal. But Jadis disbelieved; Cassandra was slain and, when her eyes were cut out the vessels were found full of Ithmid. Hence Al-Mutanabbi sang:

"Sharper-sighted than Zarká of Jau" (Yamámah).

See C. de Perceval i. 101; Arab. Prov. i. 192; and Chenery p. 381. (The Assemblies of Al-Hariri; London, Williams and Norgate, 1867). I have made many enquiries into the true nature of Ithmid and failed to learn anything: on the Upper Nile the word is=Kohl.

 [FN#197] The general colour of chessmen in the East, where the game is played on a cloth more often than a board.

 [FN#198] Arab. "Al-fil," the elephant=the French fol or fou and our bishop. I have derived "elephant" from Píl (old Persian, Sansk. Pilu) and Arab. Fil, with the article Al-Fil, whence the Greek {greek letters the suffix--as being devoted to barbarous words as Obod-as (Al Ubayd), Aretas (Al-Háris), etc. Mr. Isaac Taylor (The Alphabet i. 169), preserves the old absurdity of "eleph-ant or ox-like (!) beast of Africa." Prof. Sayce finds the word al-ab (two distinct characters) in line 3, above the figure of an (Indian) elephant, on the black obelisk of Nimrod Mound, and suggests an Assyrian derivation.

 [FN#199] Arab. "Shaukat" which may also mean the "pride" or "mainstay" (of the army).

 [FN#200] Lit. "smote him on the tendons of his neck." This is the famous shoulder-cut (Tawash shuh) which, with the leg-cut (Kalam), formed, and still forms, the staple of Eastern attack with the sword.

 [FN#201] Arab. "Dirás." Easterns do not thresh with flails. The material is strewed over a round and smoothed floor of dried mud in the open air and threshed by different connivances. In Egypt the favourite is a chair-like machine called "Norag," running on iron plates and drawn by bulls or cows over the corn. Generally, however, Moslems prefer the old classical {greek letters}, the Tribulum of Virgil and Varro, a slipper-shaped sled of wood garnished on the sole with large-headed iron nails, or sharp fragments of flint or basalt. Thus is made the "Tibn" or straw, the universal hay of the East, which our machines cannot imitate.

 [FN#202] These numbers appear to be grossly exaggerated, but they were possible in the days of sword and armour: at the battle of Saffayn the Caliph Ali is said to have cut down five hundred and twenty-three men in a single night.

 [FN#203] Arab. "Bika'á": hence the "Buka'ah" or Cœlesyria.

 [FN#204] Richardson in his excellent dictionary (note 103) which modern priggism finds "unscientific " wonderfully derives this word from Arab. "Khattáf," a snatcher (i.e. of women), a ravisher. It is an evident corruption of "captivus" through Italian and French

 [FN#205] These periodical and fair-like visitations to convents are still customary; especially amongst the Christians of Damascus.

 [FN#206] Camphor being then unknown.

 [FN#207] The "wrecker" is known all over the world; and not only barbarians hold that ships driven ashore become the property of the shore

 [FN#208] Arab. "Jokh": it is not a dictionary word, but the only term in popular use for European broadcloth.

 [FN#209] The second person plural is used because the writer would involve the subjects of his correspondent in the matter.

 [FN#210] This part of the phrase, which may seem unnecessary to the European, is perfectly intelligible to all Orientalists. You may read many an Eastern letter and not understand it. Compare Boccacoo iv. 1.

 [FN#211] i.e. he was greatly agitated

 [FN#212] In text "Li-ajal a al-Taudi'a," for the purpose of farewelling, a low Egyptianism; emphatically a "Kalám wáti." (Pilgrimage thee iii. 330.)

 [FN#213] In the Mac. Edit. Sharrkan speaks, a clerical error.

 [FN#214] The Farsakh (Germ. Stunde) a measure of time rather than distance, is an hour's travel or its equivalent, a league, a meile=three English stat. miles. The word is still used in Persia its true home, but not elsewhere. It is very old, having been determined as a lineal measure of distance by Herodotus (ii. 5 and 6 ; v. 53), who computes it at 30 furlongs (=furrow-lengths, 8 to the stat. mile). Strabo (xi.) makes it range from 40 to 60 stades (each=606 feet 9 inches), and even now it varies between 1,500 to 6,000 yards. Captain Francklin (Tour to Persia) estimates it = about four miles. (Pilgrimage ii. 113.)

 [FN#215] Arab. "Ashhab." Names of colours are few amongst semi civilised peoples, but in Arabia there is a distinct word for every shade of horseflesh.

 [FN#216] She had already said to him "Thou art beaten in everything!"

 [FN#217] Showing that she was still a Christian.

 [FN#218] This is not Badawi sentiment: the honoratioren amongst wild people would scorn such foul play; but amongst the settled Arabs honour between men and women is unknown and such "hocussing" would be held quite fair.

 [FN#219] The table of wine, in our day, is mostly a japanned tray with glasses and bottles, saucers of pickles and fruits and, perhaps, a bunch of flowers and aromatic herbs. During the Caliphate the "wine-service" was on a larger scale.

 [FN#220] Here the "Bhang" (almost a generic term applied to hellebore, etc.) may be hyoscyamus or henbane. Yet there are varieties of Cannabis, such as the Dakha of South Africa capable of most violent effect. I found the use of the drug well known to the negroes of the Southern United States and of the Brazil, although few of their owners had ever heard of it.

 [FN#221] Amongst Moslems this is a reference to Adam who first "sinned against himself,' and who therefore is called " Safíyu'llah," the Pure of Allah. (Pilgrimage iii. 333.)

 [FN#222] Meaning, an angry, violent man.

 [FN#223] Arab. "Inshád," which may mean reciting the verse of another or improvising one's own. In Modern Egypt "Munshid" is the singer or reciter of poetry at Zikrs (Lane M. E. chaps. xxiv.). Here the verses are quite bad enough to be improvised by the hapless Princess.

 [FN#224] The negro skin assumes this dust colour in cold, fear, concupiscence and other mental emotions.

 [FN#225] He compares her glance with the blade of a Yamani sword, a lieu commun of Eastern poetry. The weapons are famous in The Nights; but the best sword-cutlery came from Persia as the porcelain from China to Sana'á. Here, however, is especial allusion as to the sword "Samsam" or "Samsamah." It belonged to the Himyarite Tobba, Amru bin Ma'ad Kurb, and came into the hands of Harun al-Rashid. When the Emperor of the Greeks sent a present of superior sword-blades to him by way of a brave, the Caliph, in the presence of the Envoys, took "Samsam" in hand and cut the others in twain as if they were cabbages without the least prejudice to the edge of "Samsam."

 [FN#226] This touch of pathos is truly Arab. So in the "Romance of Dalhamah" (Lane, M. E. xxiii.) the infant Gundubah sucks the breast of its dead mother and the King exclaims, "If she had committed this crime she would not be affording the child her milk after she was dead."

 [FN#227] Arab. "Sadda'l-Aktár," a term picturesque enough to be preserved in English. "Sadd," I have said, is a wall or dyke, the term applied to the great dam of water- plants which obstructs the navigation of the Upper Nile, the lilies and other growths floating with the current from the (Victoria) Nyanza Lake. I may note that we need no longer derive from India the lotus-llily so extensively used by the Ancient Egyptians and so neglected by the moderns that it has well nigh disappeared. All the Central African basins abound in the Nymphæa and thence it found its way down the Nile Valley.

 [FN#228] Arab. "Al Marhúmah": equivalent to our "late lamented."

 [FN#229] Vulgarly pronounced "Mahmal," and by Egyptians and Turks "Mehmel." Lane (M. E. xxiv.) has figured this queenly litter and I have sketched and described it in my Pilgrimage (iii. 12).

 [FN#230] For such fits of religious enthusiasm see my Pilgrimage (iii. 254).

 [FN#231] "Irák" (Mesopotamia) means "a level country beside the banks of a ever."

 [FN#232] "Al Kuds," or "Bays al-Mukaddas," is still the popular name of Jerusalem, from the Heb. Yerushalaim ha-Kadushah (legend on shekel of Simon Maccabeus).

 [FN#233] "Follow the religion of Abraham" says the Koran (chaps. iii. 89). Abraham, titled "Khalílu'llah," ranks next in dignity to Mohammed, preceding Isa, I need hardly say that his tomb is not in Jerusalem nor is the tomb itself at Hebron ever visited. Here Moslems (soi disant) are allowed by the jealousies of Europe to close and conceal a place which belongs to the world, especially to Jews and Christians. The tombs, if they exist, lie in a vault or cave under the Mosque.

 [FN#234] Abá, or Abáyah, vulg. Abayah, is a cloak of hair, goat's or camel's; too well known to require description.

 [FN#235] Arab. "Al-Wakkád," the man who lights and keeps up the bath-fires.

 [FN#236] Arab. "Má al-Khaláf" (or "Khiláf") a sickly perfume but much prized, made from the flowers of the Salix Ægyptiaca.

 [FN#237] Used by way of soap; like glasswort and other plants.

 [FN#238] i.e., "Thou art only just recovered."

 [FN#239] To "Nakh" is to gurgle "Ikh! Ikh!" till the camel kneels. Hence the space called "Barr al-Manákhah" in Al-Medinah (Pilgrimage i. 222, ii. 91). There is a regular camel vocabulary amongst the Arabs, made up like our "Gee" (go ye!), etc. of significant words worn down.

 [FN#240] Arab. "Laza," the Second Hell provided for Jews.

 [FN#241] The word has been explained (vol. i. 112).[see Volume 1, note 199]  It is trivial, not occurring in the Koran which uses "Arabs of the Desert ;" "Arabs who dwell in tents," etc. (chaps. ix. and xxxiii.). "A'arábi" is the classical word and the origin of "Arab" is disputed. According to Pocock (Notæ Spec. Hist. Arab.): "Diverse are the opinions concerning the denomination of the Arabs; but the most certain of all is that which draws it from Arabah, which is part of the region of Tehama (belonging to Al-Medinah Pilgrimage ii. 118), which their father Ismail afterwards inhabited." Tehamah (sierra caliente) is the maritime region of Al Hijaz, the Moslems Holy Land; and its "Arabah," a very small tract which named a very large tract, must not be confounded, as some have done, with the Wady Arabah, the ancient outlet of the Dead Sea. The derivation of "Arab" from "Ya'arab" a fancied son of Joktan is mythological. In Heb. Arabia may be called "Eretz Ereb" (or "Arab")=land of the West; but in Arabic "Gharb" (not Ereb) is the Occident and the Arab dates long before the Hebrew.

 [FN#242] "When thine enemy extends his hand to thee, cut it off if thou can, or kiss it," wisely said Caliph al-Mansur.

 [FN#243] The Tartur was a peculiar turban worn by the Northern Arabs and shown in old prints. In modern Egypt the term is applied to the tall sugar-loaf caps of felt affected mostly by regular Dervishes. Burckhardt (Proverbs 194 and 398) makes it the high cap of felt or fur proper to the irregular cavalry called Dely or Delaty. In Dar For (Darfour) "Tartur" is a conical cap adorned with beads and cowries worn by the Manghwah or buffoon who corresponds with the Egyptian "Khalbús" or "Maskharah" and the Turkish "Sutari." For an illustration see Plate iv. fig. 10 of Voyage au Darfour par Mohammed El Tounsy (The Tunisian), Paris, Duprat, 1845.

 [FN#244] The term is picturesque and true; we say "gnaw," which is not so good.

 [FN#245] Here, meaning an Elder, a Chief, etc.; the word has been almost naturalised in English. I have noted that Abraham was the first "Shaykh."

 [FN#246] This mention of weighing suggests the dust of Dean Swift and the money of the Gold Coast It was done, I have said, because the gold coin, besides being "sweated" was soft and was soon worn down.

 [FN#247] Fem. of Nájí (a deliverer, a saviour)=Salvadora.

 [FN#248] This, I have noted, is according to Koranic command (chaps. iv. 88). "When you are saluted with a salutation, salute the person with a better salutation." The longer answer to "Peace be with (or upon) thee! " is still universally the custom. The "Salem" is so differently pronounced by every Eastern nation that the observant traveller will easily make of it a Shibboleth.

 [FN#249] The Badawi, who was fool as well as rogue, begins to fear that he has kidnapped a girl of family.

 [FN#250] These examinations being very indecent are usually done in strictest privacy. The great point is to make sure of virginity.

 [FN#251] This is according to strict Moslem law: the purchaser may not look at the girl's nakedness till she is his, and he ought to manage matters through an old woman.

 [FN#252] Lit. wrath; affliction which chokes; in Hindustani it means simply anger.

 [FN#253] i.e. Heaven forbid I be touched by a strange man.

 [FN#254] Used for fuel and other purposes, such as making "doss stick."

 [FN#255] Arab "Yaftah'Allah" the offer being insufficient. The rascal is greedy as a Badaw and moreover he is a liar, which the Badawi is not.

 [FN#256] The third of the four great Moslem schools of Theology, taking its name from the Imam al-Sháfi'í (Mohammed ibn Idrís) who died in Egypt A.H. 204, and lies buried near Cairo. (Sale's Prel. Disc. sect. viii.)

 [FN#257] The Moslem form of Cabbala, or transcendental philosophy of the Hebrews.

 [FN#258] Arab. "Bakh" the word used by the Apostle to Ali his son-in-law. It is the Latin “Euge.”

 [FN#259] Readers, who read for amusement, will do well to "skip" the fadaises of this highly educated young woman.

 [FN#260] There are three Persian Kings of this name (Artaxerxes) which means "Flour and milk," or "high lion." The text alludes to Ardeshir Babegan, so called because he married the daughter of Babak the shepherd, founder of the Sassanides in A.D. 202. See D,Herberot, and the Dabistan.

 [FN#261] Alluding to the proverb, "Folk follow their King's faith," "Cujus regio ejus religio" etc.

 [FN#262] Second Abbaside, A.H. 136-158 (=754-775).

 [FN#263] The celebrated companion of Mohammed who succeeded Abu Bakr in the Caliphate (A.H. 13-23=634-644). The Sunnis know him as Al-Adil the Just, and the Shiahs detest him for his usurpation, his austerity and harshness. It is said that he laughed once and wept once. The laugh was caused by recollecting how he ate his dough-gods (the idols of the Hanifah tribe) in The Ignorance. The tears were drawn by remembering how he buried alive his baby daughter who, while the grave was being dug, patted away the dust from his hair and beard. Omar was doubtless a great man, but he is one of the most ungenial figures in Moslem history which does not abound in genialities. To me he suggests a Puritan, a Covenanter of the sourest and narrowest type; and I cannot wonder that the Persians abhor him, and abuse him on all occasions.

 [FN#264] The austere Caliph Omar whose scourge was more feared than the sword was the - author of the celebrated saying "Consult them (feminines) and do clear contrary-wise."

 [FN#265] Our "honour amongst thieves."

 [FN#266] The sixth successor of Mohammed and founder of the Banu Umayyah or Ommiades, called the "sons of the little mother" from their eponymus (A.H. 41-60=661-680). For his Badawi wife Maysun, and her abuse of her husband, see Pilgrimage iii. 262.

 [FN#267] Shaykh of the noble tribe, or rather nation, Banu Tamím and a notable of the day, surnamed, no one knows why, "Sire of the Sea."

 [FN#268] This is essential for cleanliness in hot lands: however much the bath may be used, the body-pile and lower hair, if submitted to a microscope, will show more or less sordes adherent. The axilla-hair is plucked because if shaved the growing pile causes itching and the depilatories are held deleterious. At first vellication is painful but the skin becomes used to it. The pecten is shaved either without or after using depilatories, of which more presently. The body-pile is removed by "Takhfíf"; the Libán Shámi (Syrian incense), a fir- gum imported from Scio, is melted and allowed to cool in the form of a pledget. This is passed over the face and all the down adhering to it is pulled up by the roots (Burckhardt No. 420). Not a few Anglo-Indians have adopted these precautions

 [FN#269] This Caliph was a tall, fair, handsome man of awe-inspiring aspect. Omar used to look at him and say, "This is the Cæsar of the Arabs," while his wife called him a "fatted ass."

 [FN#270] The saying is attributed to Abraham when "exercised" by the unkindly temper of Sarah; "woman is made hard and crooked like a rib;" and the modern addition is, "whoso would straighten her, breaketh her."

 [FN#271] i.e. "When ready and in erection."

 [FN#272] "And do first (before going in to your wives) some act which may be profitable unto your souls" or, for you: soul's good. (Koran, chaps. ii. 223.) Hence Ahnaf makes this prayer.

 [FN#273] It was popularly said that "Truth-speaking left Omar without a friend." Entitled "The Just" he was murdered by Abu Lúlúah, alias Fírúz, a (Magian ?) slave of Al-Maghírah for denying him justice.

 [FN#274] Governor of Bassorah under the first four Caliphs. See D'Herbelot s.v. "Aschári."

 [FN#275] Ziyad bin Abi Sufyan, illegitimate brother of the Caliph Mu'awiyah afterwards governor of Bassorah, Cufa and Al-Hijaz.

 [FN#276] The seditions in Kufah were mainly caused by the wilful nepotism of Caliph Othman bin Asákir which at last brought about his death. His main quality seems to have been personal beauty: "never was seen man or woman of fairer face than he and he was the most comely of men:" he was especially famed for beautiful teeth which in old age he bound about with gold wire. He is described as of middling stature, large- limbed, broad shouldered, fleshy of thigh and long in the fore-arm which was hairy. His face inclined to yellow and was pock-marked; his beard was full and his curly hair, which he dyed yellow, fell below his ears. He is called "writer of the Koran" from his edition of the M.S., and "Lord of the two Lights" because he married two of the Prophet's daughters, Rukayyah and Umm Kulthum; and, according to the Shi'ahs who call him Othman-i-Lang or" limping Othman," he vilely maltreated them. They justify his death as the act of an Ijmá' al-Muslimín, the general consensus of Moslems which ratifies "Lynch law." Altogether Othman is a mean figure in history.

 [FN#277] "Nár" (fire) is a word to be used delicately from its connection with Gehenna. You say, e.g. "bring me a light, a coal (bassah)" etc.; but if you say "bring me fire! " the enemy will probably remark "He wanteth fire even before his time!" The slang expression would be "bring the sweet." (Pilgrimage i. 121.)

 [FN#278] Omar is described as a man of fair complexion, and very ruddy, but he waxed tawny with age, when he also became bald and grey. He had little hair on the cheeks but a long mustachio with reddish ends. In stature he overtopped the people and was stout as he was tall. A popular saying of Mohammed's is, "All (very) long men are fools save Omar, and all (very) short men are knaves save Ali." The Persians, who abhor Omar, compare every lengthy, ungainly, longsome thing with him; they will say, "This road never ends, like the entrails of Omar." We know little about Ali's appearance except that he was very short and stout, broad and full-bellied with a tawny complexion and exceedingly hairy, his long beard, white as cotton, filling all the space between his shoulders. He was a "pocket. Hercules," and incredible tales, like that about the gates of Khaybar, are told of his strength. Lastly, he was the only Caliph who bequeathed anything to literature: his "Cantiloquium" is famous and he has left more than one mystical and prophetic work. See Ockley for his "Sentences" and D'Herbelot s. D. "Ali" and "Gebr." Ali is a noble figure in Moslem history.

 [FN#279] The emancipation from the consequences of his sins; or it may mean a holy death.

 [FN#280] Battle fought near Al-Medinah A.D. 625. The word is derived from "shad" (one). I have described the site in my Pilgrimage, (vol. ii. 227).

 [FN#281] "Haphsa" in older writers; Omar's daughter and one of Mohammed's wives, famous for her connection with the manuscripts of the Koran. From her were (or claimed to be) descended the Hafsites who reigned in Tunis and extended their power far and wide over the Maghrib (Mauritania), till dispossessed by the Turks.

 [FN#282] i.e. humbly without the usual strut or swim: it corresponds with the biblical walking or going softly. (I Kings xxi. 27; Isaiah xxxviii. 15, etc.)

 [FN#283] A theologian of the seventh and eighth centuries.

 [FN#284] i.e. to prepare himself by good works, especially alms-giving, for the next world.

 [FN#285] A theologian of the eighth century.

 [FN#286] Abd al-Aziz was eighth Ommiade (regn. A.H. 99=717) and the fifth of the orthodox, famed for a piety little known to his house. His most celebrated saying was, " Be constant in meditation on death: if thou bein straitened case 'twill enlarge it, and if in affluence 'twill straiten it upon thee." He died. poisoned, it is said, in A.H 101,

 [FN#287] Abu Bakr originally called Abd al-Ka'abah (slave of the Ka'abah) took the name of Abdullah and was surnamed Abu Bakr (father of the virgin) when Mohammed, who before had married only widows, took to wife his daughter, the famous or infamous Ayishah. "Bikr" is the usual form, but "Bakr," primarily meaning a young camel, is metaphorically applied to human youth (Lane's Lex. s. c.). The first Caliph was a cloth-merchant, like many of the Meccan chiefs. He is described as very fair with bulging brow, deep set eyes and thin-checked, of slender build and lean loined, stooping and with the backs of his hands fleshless. He used tinctures of Henna and Katam for his beard. The Persians who hate him, call him "Pir-i-Kaftár," the old she-hyaena, and believe that he wanders about the deserts of Arabia in perpetual rut which the males must satisfy.

 [FN#288] The second, fifth, sixth and seventh Ommiades.

 [FN#289] The mother of Omar bin Abd al-Aziz was a granddaughter of Omar bin al-Khattab.

 [FN#290] Brother of this Omar's successor, Yezid II.

 [FN#291] So the Turkish proverb "The fish begins to stink at the head."

 [FN#292] Calling to the slaves.

 [FN#293] When the "Day of Arafat" (9th of Zú'l-Hijjah) falls upon a Friday. For this Hajj al- Akbar see my Pilgrimage iii. 226. It is often confounded by writers (even by the learned M. Caussin de Perceval) with the common Pilgrimage as opposed to the Umrah, or " Lesser Pilgrimage" (ibid. iii. 342, etc.). The latter means etymologically cohabiting with a woman in her father's house as opposed to 'Ars or leading her to the husband's home: it is applied to visiting Meccah and going through all the pilgrim-rites but not at the Pilgrimage-season. Hence its title "Hajj al-Asghar" the "Lesser Hajj." But "Umrah" is also applied to a certain ceremony between the hills Safá (a large hard rock) and Marwah (stone full of flints), which accompanies the Hajj and which I have described (ibid. iii. 344). At Meccah I also heard of two places called Al-Umrah, the Greater in the Wady Fátimah and the Lesser half way nearer the city (ibid. iii. 344).

 [FN#294] A fair specimen of the unworthy egoism which all religious systems virtually inculcate Here a pious father leaves his children miserable to save his own dirty soul.

 [FN#295] Chief of the Banú Tamín, one of the noblest of tribes, derived from Tamím, the uncle of Kuraysh (Koreish); hence the poets sang:--

    There cannot be a son nobler than Kuraysh,
    Nor an uncle nobler than Tamím.

 The high minded Tamín is contrasted with the mean-spirited Kays, who also gave rise to a tribe; and hence the saying concerning one absolutely inconsistent, "Art thou now Tamín and then Kays?"

 [FN#296] Surnamed Al-Sakafi, Governor of Al-Yaman and Irak.

 [FN#297] Tenth Ommiade (regn. A H. 105-125 = 724-743).

 [FN#298] Or "clothe thee in worn-out clothes" i.e. "Become a Fakir" or religious mendicant.

 [FN#299] This gratuitous incest in ignorance injures the tale and is as repugnant to Moslem as to Christian taste.

 [FN#300] The child is named either on the day of its birth or on that day week. The father whispers it in the right ear, often adding the Azán or prayer-call, and repeating in the left ear the "Ikámah" or Friday sentence. There are many rules for choosing names according to the week-day, the ascendant planet, the "Sortes Coranicæ," etc.

 [FN#301] Amongst Moslems as amongst Christians there are seven deadly sins: idolatry, murder, falsely charging modest women with unchastity, robbing orphans, usury, desertion in Holy War and disobedience to parents. The difference between the two creeds is noteworthy. And the sage knows only three, intemperance, ignorance and egoism.

 [FN#302] Meaning, "It was decreed by Destiny; so it came to pass," appropriate if not neat.

 [FN#303] The short, stout, dark, long-haired and two-bunched camel from "Bukhtar" (Bactria), the "Eastern" (Bakhtar) region on the Amu or Jayhun (Oxus) River; afterwards called Khorasan. The two-humped camel is never seen in Arabia except with northern caravans, and to speak of it would be a sore test of Badawi credulity.

 [FN#304] "Kaylúlah" is the "forty-winks" about noon: it is a Sunnat or Practice of the Prophet who said, "Make the mid-day siesta, for verily at this hour the devils sleep not." "Aylúlain" is slumbering after morning prayers (our "beauty-sleep"), causing heaviness andid leness: "Ghaylúlah" is dozing about 9 a.m. engendering poverty and wretchedness: "Kaylúlah" (with the guttural Kaf) is sleeping before evening prayers and "Faylúlah" is slumbering after sunset--both held to be highly detrimental. (Pilgrimage ii 49.)

 [FN#305] The Biblical "Hamath" (Hightown) too well known to require description. It is still famous for the water-wheels mentioned by al-Hariri (assembly of the Banu Harám).

 [FN#306] When they say, "The levee flashes bright on the hills of Al-Yaman," the allusion is to the south quarter, where summer-lightning is seen. Al-Yaman (always with the article) means, I have said, the right-hand region to one facing the rising sun and Al-Sham (Syria) the left-hand region.

 [FN#307] Again "he" for "she," in delicacy and jealousy of making public the beauty or conditions of the "veiled sex." Even public singers would hesitate to use a feminine pronoun. As will be seen however, the rule is not invariably kept and hardly ever in Badawi poetry.

 [FN#308] The normal pun on "Nuzhat al-Zaman" = Delight of the Age or Time.

 [FN#309] The reader will find in my Pilgrimage (i. 305) a sketch of the Takht-rawan or travelling-litter, in which pilgrimesses are wont to sleep.

 [FN#310] In poetry it holds the place of our Zephyr; end the "Bád-i-Sabá"=Breeze o' the morn, Is much addressed by Persian poets.

 [FN#311] Here appears the nervous, excitable, hysterical Arab temperament which is almost phrensied by the neighbourhood of a home from which he had run away.

 [FN#312] Zau al-Makan and Nuzhat al-Zaman.

 [FN#313] The idea is essentially Eastern, "A lion at home and a lamb abroad" is the popular saying.

 [FN#314] Arab. "Hubb al-Watan" (= love of birthplace, patriotism) of which the Tradition says "Min al-Imán" (=is part of man's religion).

 [FN#315] He is supposed to speak en prince; and he yields to a prayer when he spurns a command.

 [FN#316] In such caravans each party must keep its own place under pain of getting into trouble with the watchmen and guards.

 [FN#317] Mr. Payne (ii. 109) borrows this and the next quotation from the Bull Edit. i. 386.

 [FN#318] For the expiation of inconsiderate oaths see Koran (chaps. v.). I cannot but think that Al-Islam treats perjury too lightly: all we can say is-that it improves upon Hinduism which practically seems to leave the punishment to the gods.

 [FN#319] "Kausar," as has been said, represents the classical nectar, the Amrita of the Hindus.

 [FN#320] From Bull Edit. i. 186. The couplet in the Mac. Edit. i. 457 is very wildly applied.

 [FN#321] The "insula" of Sancho Panza.

 [FN#322] This should have assured him that he stood in no danger.

 [FN#323] Here ends the wearisome tale of the brother and sister, and the romance of chivalry begins once more with the usual Arab digressions.

 [FN#324] I have derived this word from the Persian "rang"=colour, hue, kind.

 [FN#325] Otherwise all would be superseded, like U. S. officials under a new President.

 [FN#326] Arab. "Nímshah" from the Pers. Nímchah, a "half-sword," a long dagger worn in the belt. Richardson derives it from Namsh, being freckled (damasked).

 [FN#327] The Indian term for a tent large enough to cover a troop of cavalry.

 [FN#328] Arab. "Marhúm" a formula before noticed. It is borrowed from the Jewish, "of blessed memory" (after the name of the honoured dead, Prov. x. 17.); with the addition of “upon whom be peace," as opposed to the imprecation, "May the name of the wicked rot!”

 [FN#329] The speeches of the five damsels should be read only by students.

 [FN#330] i.e. Those who look for "another and a better."

 [FN#331] The title of Caliph Abu Bakr because he bore truthful witness to the Apostle's mission or, others say, he confirmed the "Mi'ráj" or nocturnal journey to Heaven.

 [FN#332] All this is Koranic (chaps. ii., etc.).

 [FN#333] This may have applied more than once to "hanging judges" in the Far West.

 [FN#334] A traditionist and jurisconsult of Al-Medinah in the seventh and eighth centuries.

 [FN#335] The Alexander of the Koran and Eastern legends, not to be confounded with the Alexander of Macedon. He will be noticed in a future Night.

 [FN#336] Æsop, according to the Arabs: of him or rather of the two Lukmans, more presently.

 [FN#337] Koran ii. 185.

 [FN#338] Mohammed.

 [FN#339] One of the Asháb or Companions of Mohammed.

 [FN#340] A noted traditionist at Cufa in the seventh century.

 [FN#341] Koran, chaps. lxxiv. I (and verse 8 follows). The Archangel Gabriel is supposed to address Mohammed and not a few divines believe this Surah (chapter) to have been first revealed. Mr. Rodwell makes it No. ii. following the Fatrah or silent interval which succeeded No. xcvi. "Clots of Blood." See his 2nd Edit. p. 3 for further details.

 [FN#342] i.e. dangerous to soul-health.

 [FN#343] In the Mac. Edit. "Abd" for "Sa'id." The latter was a black and a native of Cufa during the first century (A.H ) and is still famous as a traditionist.

 [FN#344] Arab. "Shirk," giving a partner to Allah, attending chiefly to Christians and idolaters and in a minor degree to Jews and Guebres. We usually English it by "polytheism," which is clumsy and conveys a wrong idea

 [FN#345] Grandson of the Caliph Ali. He is one of the Imams (High-priests) of the Shi'ah school.

 [FN#346] An eminent traditionist of the eighth century (A.D.).

 [FN#347] The prayers of the Fast-month and Pilgrimage-month are often said in especial places outside the towns and cities; these are the Indian Id(Eed-)gáh. They have a screen of wall about a hundred yards long with a central prayer-niche and the normal three steps for the preacher; and each extremity is garnished with an imitation minaret. They are also called Namáz-gah and one is sketched by Herklots (Plate iii. fig. 2). The object of the trips thither in Zu'l-Ka'adah and Zu'l-Hijjah is to remind Moslems of the "Ta'aríf," or going forth from Meccah to Mount Arafat.

 [FN#348] Arab. "Al-Háfi," which in Egyptian means sore-footed as well. He was an ascetic of the eighth and ninth centuries (A.D.). He relates a tradition of the famous soldier saint Khálid bin Walíd who lies buried like the poet Ka'ab al-Ahbár near Hums (Emessa) once the Bœotia, Phrygia, Abdera, Suabia of Syria now Halbun (pronounced Halbáun) near Damascus. I cannot explain how this Kuraysh noble (a glorious figure in Moslem history) is claimed by the Afghans as one of their countrymen and made to speak Pukhtu or Pushtu, their rough old dialect of Persian. The curious reader will consult my Pilgrimage iii. 322 for the dialogue between Mohammed and Khalid. Again there is general belief in Arabia that the English sent a mission to the Prophet, praying that Khalid might be despatched to proselytise them: unfortunately Mohammed was dead and the "Ingríz" ratted. It is popularly held that no armed man can approach Khalid's grave; but I suppose my revolver did not count.

 [FN#349] When he must again wash before continuing prayer.

 [FN#350] Bin Adham; another noted ascetic of the eighth century. Those curious about these unimportant names will consult the great Biographical Dictionary of Ibn Khallikan, translated by Baron MacGuckin de Slane (1842-45).

 [FN#351] Thus making Bishr the "Imám" (artistes) lit. one who stands in front. In Koran xvii. 74 it means "leader": in ii. 118 Allah makes Abraham an "Imam to mankind."

 [FN#352] A favourite sentiment in the East: we find it at the very beginning of Sa'di's Gulistan: better a weal-bringing lie than a harm-dealing truth.

 [FN#353] A penny, one sixth of the drachma.

 [FN#354] Founder of the Hanbali, fourth (in date) of the four orthodox Moslem schools. The Caliph al-Mu'atasim bi'llah, son of Harun al-Rashid, who believed the Koran to have been created and not a Logos (whatever that may be), co-eternal with Allah, scourged this Imam severely for "differing in opinion" (A.H. 220=833). In fact few of the notable reverends of that day escaped without a caress of the scourge or the sword.

 [FN#355] A learned man of the eighth century at Bassorah (A.D.).

 [FN#356] A traditionist of Khorasan in the ninth century (A.D.).

 [FN#357] "Azal," opp. to "Abad," eternity without end, infinity.

 [FN#358] Koran lxvi. 6.

 [FN#359] A traditionist of Al-Medinah, eighth century (A.D.).

 [FN#360] Arab. "Músá": the Egyptian word was "Mesu," the "child" or the "boy" (brought up in the palace?), and the Hebrews made it "Mosheh" or "one drawn out of the water;" "Mu" in Egypt being water, the Arab "Ma"; whence probably the moderns have derived the dim. "Moyeh ," vulg. Egyptian for water.

 [FN#361] Koran, chaps. xxviii.: Shu'ayb is our Jethro: Koran, chaps. vii. and xi. Mr. Rodwell suggests (p. 101) that the name has been altered from Hobab (Numb. x. 29).

 [FN#362] Arab. "Taub" (Saub), the long shirt popularly written in English Tobe and pronounced so by Egyptians. It is worn by both sexes (Lane, M. E. chaps. i. "Tob") in Egypt, and extends into the heart of Moslem Africa: I can compare it with nothing but a long nightgown dyed a dirty yellow by safflower and about as picturesque as a carter's smock-frock.

 [FN#363] There is nothing of this in the Koran; and it is a most unhappy addition, as Moses utterly and pretentiously ignored a "next world."

 [FN#364] Koran xxviii. 22-27. Mohammed evidently confounded the contract between Laban and Jacob. (Gen. xxix. 15-39.)

 [FN#365] So says Al-Hariri (Ass. of Sasan), "The neighbour before the house and the traveller before the journey." In certain cities the neighbourhood is the real detective police, noting every action and abating scandals (such as orgies, etc.) with a strong hand and with the full consent of public opinion and of the authorities. This loving the neighbour shows evident signs of being borrowed from Christianity.

 [FN#366] Al-Asamm a theologian of Balkh, ninth century (A.D.).

 [FN#367] The founder of the Senior School, for which see Sale Prel. Disc. sect. viii.

 [FN#368] Thus serving the Lord by sinning against his own body.

 [FN#369] An Egyptian doctor of the law (ninth century).

 [FN#370] Koran lxxvii. 35, 36. This is one of the earliest and most poetical chapters of the book.

 [FN#371] Abu Hanifah was scourged for refusing to take office and was put to death in prison, it is said by poison (A.H. 150=A.D. 767), for a judicial sentence authorising rebellion against the second Abbaside, Al-Mansur, surnamed Abu'l-Dawánik (Father of Pence) for his exceeding avarice.

 [FN#372] "Lá rayba fí-hi" says the Koran (ii. 1) of itself; and the saying is popularly applied to all things of the Faith.

 [FN#373] Arab. "Rivál al-Ghayb," somewhat like the "Himalayan Brothers" of modern superstition. See Herklots (Qanoon-e-Islam) for a long and careful description of these "Mardán-i-Ghayb" (Pers.), a "class of people mounted on clouds," invisible, but moving in a circular orbit round the world, and suggesting the Hindu "Lokapálas." They should not be in front of the traveller nor on his right, but either behind or on his left hand. Hence tables, memorial couplets and hemistichs are required to ascertain the station, without which precaution journeys are apt to end badly.

 [FN#374] A sweetmeat before noticed.

 [FN#375] Door hinges in the east are two projections for the top and bottom of the leaf playing in hollows of the lintel and threshold. It appears to be the primitive form, for we find it in the very heart of Africa. In the basaltic cities of the Hauran, where the doors are of thick stone, they move easily on these pins. I found them also in the official (not the temple)City of Palmyra, but all broken.

 [FN#376] The effect of the poison and of the incantation which accompanied it.

 [FN#377] King Omar who had raped her. My sympathies are all with the old woman who nightly punished the royal lecher.

 [FN#378] Arab. "Zunnár," the Gr. {greek letters}. Christians and Jews were compelled by the fanatical sumptuary laws of the Caliph Al-Mutawakkil (AD. 856) to wear a broad leather belt in public, hence it became a badge of the Faith. Probably it was confounded with the "Janeo" (Brahmanical thread) and the Parsi sacred girdle called Kashti. (Dabistan i, 297, etc.). Both Mandeville and La Brocquière speak of "Christians of the Girdle, because they are all girt above," intending Jacobites or Nestorians.

 [FN#379] "Siláh dár" (Arab. and Pers.)=a military officer of high rank; literally an "armour-bearer," chosen for velour and trustworthiness. So Jonathan had a "young man" (brave) who bare his armour (I Sam. xiv. 1, 6 and 7); and Goliath had a man that bare the shield before him (ibid. xvii. 7, 41). Men will not readily forget the name of Sulayman Agha, called the Silahdar, in Egypt. (Lane M. E. chaps. iv.)

 [FN#380] It will be told afterwards.

 [FN#381] The elder brother thus showed himself a vassal and proved himself a good Moslem by not having recourse to civil war.

 [FN#382] Arab. "Ghazwah," the corrupt Gallicism, now Europeanised=raid, foray.

 [FN#383] Turk in modern parlance means a Turkoman, a pomade: the settled people call themselves Osmanli or Othmanli. Turkoman=Turk-like.

 [FN#384] Arab. "Nimsá;" southern Germans, Austrians; from the Slav. "Nemica" (any Germans), literally meaning "The dumb" (nemac), because they cannot speak Slav.

 [FN#385] Arab. "Dubárá" from the Slav. "Dubrovnik," from "Dub" (an oak) and "Dubrava" (an oak forest). Ragusa, once a rival of Venice, gave rise to the word "Argosy." D'Herbelot calls it "Dobravenedik" or "Good Venice," the Turkish name, because it paid tribute when Venice would not (?).

 [FN#386] Arab. "Jawarnah," or, "Júrnah" evidently Zara, a place of many names, Jadera (Hirtius de Bell. Alex. cap. 13), Jadra, Zadra (whence the modern term), Diadora, Diadosca and Jadrossa. This important Liburnian city sent forth many cruisers in crusading days; hence the Arabs came to know its name.

 [FN#387] Arab. "Banu'l-Asfar;" which may mean "Pale faces," in the sense of "yeller girls" (New Orleans) and that intended by North American Indians, or, possibly, the peoples with yellow (or rather tow-coloured) hair we now call Russians. The races of Hindostan term the English not "white men," but "red men;" and the reason will at once be seen by comparing a Britisher with a high-caste Nágar Brahman whose face is of parchment colour as if he had drunk exsangue cuminum. The Yellow-faces of the text correspond with the Sansk. "Svetadvipa"--Whiteman's Land.

 [FN#388] Arab. "Al-Musakhkham." No Moslem believes that Isa was crucified and a favourite fancy is that Judas, changed to the likeness of Jesus, thus paid for his treason. (Evangel. Barnabæ.) Hence the resurrection is called not "Kiyámah" but "Kumámah"=rubbish. This heresy about the Cross they share with the Docetes, "certain beasts in the shape of men" (says Ignatius), who held that a phantom was crucified. So far the Moslems are logical, for "Isa," being angelically, miraculously and immaculately conceived, could not be; but they contradict themselves when they hold a vacant place near Mohammed's tomb for the body of Isa after his second coming as a forerunner to Mohammed and Doomday. (Pilgrimage ii. 89.)

 [FN#389] A diviner, priest, esp. Jewish, and not belonging to the tribe of Levi.

 [FN#390] Again the coarsest word "Khara." The allusion is to the vulgar saying, "Thou eatest skite!" (i.e. thou talkest nonsense). Decent English writers modify this to, "Thou eatest dirt:" and Lord Beaconsfield made it ridiculous by turning it into "eating sand."

 [FN#391] These silly scandals, which cause us only to smile, excite Easterns to fury. I have seen a Moslem wild with rage on hearing a Christian parody the opening words of the Koran, "Bismillahi 'l-Rahmáni 'l-Rahím, Mismish wa Kamar al-din," roughly translated,
"In the name of Allah, the Compassionating, the Compassionate! Apricots and marmalede." The idea of the Holy Merde might have been suggested by the Hindus: see Mandeville, of the archiprotopapaton (prelate) carrying ox-dung and urine to the King, who therewith anoints his brow and breast, &c. And, incredible to relate, this is still practiced after a fashion by the Parsis, one of the most progressive and the sharpest witted of Asiatic races.

 [FN#392] Meaning that he had marked his brow with a cross (of ashes?) as certain do on Ash Wednesday.

 [FN#393] Syria, the "left-hand land" as has before been explained. The popular saying about its people is "Shámi shúmi!"--the Syrian is small potatoes (to render the sense Americanicè). Nor did Syrus, the slave in Roman days, bear the best of names. In Al-Hijaz the Syrian is addressed "Abú Shám" (Father of Syria) and insulted as "Abuser of the Salt" (a traitor). Yet many sayings of Mohammed are recorded in honour of Syria, and he sometimes used Syriac words. Such were "Bakh, bakh" (=euge, before noticed), and "Kakh," a congener of the Latin Cacus and Caca which our day has docked to "cack." (Pilgrimage iii. 115)

 [FN#394] Koran xiv. 34. "They (Unbelievers) shall be thrown therein (i.e., the House of Perdition=Hell); and an unhappy dwelling shall it be."

 [FN#395] The leg-cut is a prime favourite with the Eastern Sworder, and a heavy two-handed blade easily severs a horse's leg.

 [FN#396] Mohammed repeatedly declared (Koran lxi.) that the Christians had falsified the passage ("I go to my Father and the Paraclete shall come," John xvi. 7) promising the advent of the Comforter, {greek letters} (ibid. xiv. 20; xv. 26) by substituting the latter word for {greek letters} glorious, renowned, i.e., Ahmed or Mohammed=the praised one. This may have been found in the Arabic translation of the Gospels made by Warakah, cousin to Mohammed's first wife; and hence in Koran lxi. we find Jesus prophesying of an Apostle "whose name shall be Ahmad." The word has consequently been inserted into the Arabic Gospel of Saint Barnabas (Dabistan iii. 67). Moslems accept the Pentateuch, the Psalter and the Gospel; but assert (Koran, passim.) that all extant copies have been hopelessly corrupted, and they are right. Moses, to whom the Pentateuch is attributed, notices his own death and burial--"the mair the miracle," said the old Scotch lady. The "Psalms of David" range over a period of some five hundred years, and there are three Isaiahs who pass with the vulgar for one. The many apocryphal Gospels, all of which have been held genuine and canonical at different times and in different places, prove that the four, which are still in use, were retained because they lack the manifest absurdities of their discarded rivals.

 [FN#397] Arab. " Labbayka; " the Pilgrimage-cry (Night xxii.) which in Arabic is,

    Labbayk' Allahumma, Labbayk'!
    Lá Sharíka lake, Labbayk'!
    Inna 'l-hamda w'al ni'amata lake wa'l mulk!
    Labbayk' Allahumma, Labbayk'!

 Some add "Here am I, and I honour Thee, the son of Thy two slaves; beneficence and good are all between Thy hands."With the "Talbiyah" the pilgrims should bless the Prophet, pray Allah to grant Heaven and exclaim, "By Thy mercy spare us from the pains of Hell-fire!" (Pilgrimage iii. 232.) Labbayka occurs in the verses attributed to Caliph Ali; so labba=he faced, and yalubbu=it faces (as one house faces another); lastly, he professed submission to Allah; in which sense, together with the verbal noun "Talbiyah," it is used by Al-Hanri (Pref. and Ass. of Su'adah).

 [FN#398] Arab. "Kissís" (plur. Kusús) from ‘{greek letters}.

 [FN#399] Koran ii. The "red cow" is evidently the "red heifer" of Barnabas, chaps. vii.

 [FN#400] Arab. "Al-Jásalík"={greek letters}.

 [FN#401] This is from the first "Gospel of Infancy," wherein Jesus said to his mother, "Verily I am Jesus, the Son of God, the Word which thou hast brought forth, as the Angel Gabriel did declare unto thee; and my Father hath sent me to save the world" (chaps. i. 2.). The passage is virtually quoted in the Koran (chaps. iii. 141), of course omitting " the Son of God"

 [FN#402] Mohammed allowed his locks to grow down to his ear-lobes but never lower.

 [FN#403] Arab. "Lisám" I have explained as a covering for the lower face, made by drawing over it the corner of the head-kerchief (Pilgrimage i. 346). The Lisám of the African Tawárik hoods the eyes so that a man must turn up his face to see, and swathes all the lower half, leaving only the nose exposed. And this is worn by many men by night as well as by day, doubtless to avoid the evil eye. The native Sultans of Darfur, like those of Bornu and others further west, used white muslin as a face-wrap: hence, too, the ceremonies when spitting, etc., etc. The Kúfiyah or head-kerchief of the Arabs soon reached Europe and became in Low Latin Cuphia; in Spanish Escofia; in Ital. Cuffia or Scuffia; in French Escoffion, Scofion (Reine Marguerite) Coëffe (une pellicule, marque de bonheur) Coiffe and Coife, &c.; the Scotch Curch or Coif, opposed to the maiden snood, and, lastly our Sergeant-at-Law's Coif. Littré, the Learned, who in erudition was né coiffé, has missed this obvious derivation.

 [FN#404] "Cutting," throughout the book, alludes to the scymitar with which Arabs never give point; and "thrusting" to the footman's spear and the horseman's lance.

 [FN#405] A popular phrase, I repeat, for extreme tenor and consternation.

 [FN#406] The name usually applies to a well-known district and city of Al Yaman, where "Koss the eloquent" was bishop in Mohammed's day: the Negiran of D'Herbelot. Here, however, it is the Syrian Najrán (Nejrân of Missionary Porter's miserable Handbook), now a wretched village near the volcanic Lajjá, about one hundred and twenty miles direct south of Damascus and held by Druzes and Christians.

 [FN#407] The Kantár (quintal) of 100 ratls (Ibs.) =98-99 Ibs. avoir.

 [FN#408] Arab. "Juráb (bag) mi'adat- ih (of his belly)," the "curdling of the testicles" in fear is often mentioned.

 [FN#409] Clearly alluding to the magic so deeply studied by mediæval Jews.

 [FN#410] Arab. "Sahákah," lit. rubbing. The Moslem Harem is a great school for this "Lesbian (which I would call Atossan) love "; but the motive of the practice lies deeper. As amongst men the mixture of the feminine with the masculine temperament leads to sodomy, so the reverse makes women prefer their own sex. These tribades are mostly known by peculiarities of form and features, hairy cheeks and upper lips, gruff voices, hircine odour and the large projecting clitoris with erectile powers known to the Arabs as "bazar" hence Tabzír=circumcision or amputation of such clitoris. Burckhardt (Prov. 436) translates " Bazarah" by slut or wench. He adds " it originally signifies the labia which the Cairenes also entice Zambúr and which are cut off in girlhood." See also Lane, Lex. s.v.; Tabzír. Both writers confuse excision of the nymphæ with circumcision of the clitoris (Zambúr) Al-Siyúti (Kitab al-Izá' fi'Ilm al-Nikah) has a very interesting chapter on Sapphic venery, which is well known to Europe as proved by such works as "Gamiani," and "Anandria ou Confessions de Mademoiselle Sappho, avec la Clef," Lesbos, 1718. Onanism is fatally prevalent: in many Harems and girls' schools tallow candles and similar succedanea are vainly forbidden and bananas when detected are cut into four so as to be useless; of late years, however, China has sent some marvellous artificial phalli of stuffed bladder, horn and even caoutchouc, the latter material of course borrowed from Europe.

 [FN#411] This is considered a powerful aphrodisiac in the East. Hence male devotees are advised to avoid tile "two reds," i.e. meat and wine; while the "two reds," which corrupt women, are gold and saffron, that is perfumery. Hence also the saying of Mohammed:--"Perfumes for men should have scent and not colour; for women should have colour and not scent." (Mishkát al-Masábíh ii. 361.)

 [FN#412] These are the "Hibás" or thin cords of wool which the Badawi binds round his legs, I believe to keep off cramp. (Pilgrimage iii. 78).

 [FN#413] Crying out "La iláha illa 'llah." (There is no god but the God.); technically called “Tahlíl.”

 [FN#414] i.e. Men, angels and devils, the "Triloka" (triple people) of the Hindus. Alamín (plur.), never Alamayn (dual), is the Triregno denoted by the papal Tiara, the three Christian kingdoms being Heaven, Hell and Purgatory.

 [FN#415] Matrahinna or Mit-Rahinah is a well-known village near Memphis, the name being derived from the old Egyptian Minat-ro-hinnu, the port at the mouth of the canal. Let me remark that two of these three words, "Minat" and "Ru," are still common in " Aryan" Persian.

 [FN#416] Kirámat, a sign, a prodigy, opposed to Mu'ujizah, a miracle wrought by a prophet. The Sufis explain this thaumaturgy by Allah changing something of Nature's ordinary course in favour of an especial worshipper, and, after a fashion, this is Catholic doctrine (See Dabistan, iii. 173).

 [FN#417] Koran, x. 25, "until the earth receive its vesture and be adorned with various plants."

 [FN#418] i.e. the young hair sprouting on the boy's cheek.

 [FN#419] A fighter for the faith and now a title which follows the name, e.g. Osmán Páshá Ghází, whom the English press dubbed "Ghazi Osman."

 [FN#420] That is the King of Constantinople.

 [FN#421] Cassia fistularis, a kind of carob: " Shambar" is the Arab. form of the Persian " Chambar."

 [FN#422] Koran, ii. 149. Hence the vulgar idea that Martyrs are still alive in the flesh. See my Pilgrimage (ii. 110 and elsewhere) for the romantic and picturesque consequences of that belief. The Commentators (Jalál al-Dín, etc.) play tricks with the Koranic words, " they (martyrs) are not dead but living" (iii. 179) by placing the happy souls in the crops of green birds which eat of the fruits and drink of the waters of Paradise; whereas the reprobates and the (very) wicked are deposited in black birds which drain the sanies and the boiling waters of Hell. Amongst the Greeks a body remaining entire long after death suggests Anathema Maranatha: it is the contrary with Catholic Christians (Boccaccio iv. 5, of the Pot of Basil). Concerning this creed see Maundrell, Letter of 1698.

 [FN#423] Tor is "Mount Sinai" in the Koran (xcv. 1). I have only to repeat my opinion concerning the present site so called: "It is evident that Jebel Serbal dates only from the early days of Coptic Christianity; that Jebel Musa, its Greek rival, rose after the visions of Helena in the fourth century; whilst the building of the Convent by Justinian belongs to A.D 527. Ras Safsáfah, its rival to the north, is an affair of yesterday, and may be called the invention of Robinson; and Jebel Katerina, to the south is the property of Rüppell" (Midian Revisited i., 237). I would therefore call the "Sinaitic" Peninsula, Peninsula of Paran in old days and Peninsula of Tor (from its chief port) in our time. It is still my conviction that the true Mount Sinai will be found in Jabal Aráif, or some such unimportant height to the north of the modern Hajj-road from Suez to Akabah. Even about the name (which the Koran writes "Sainá" and "Sínín") there is a dispute: It is usually derived from the root "Sanah"=sentis, a bush; but this is not satisfactory. Our eminent Assyriologist, Professor Sayce, would connect it with "Sin," the Assyrian Moon- god as Mount Nebo with the Sun-god and he expects to find there the ruins of a Lunar temple as a Solar fane stands on Ba'al Zapuna (Baal Zephon) or the classical Mount Casius.

 [FN#424] Alluding to the miracle of Aaron's rod (the gift of Jethro) as related in the Koran (chapts. vii. 1., xx., etc.), where the Egyptian sorcerers threw down thick ropes which by their magic twisted and coiled like serpents.

 [FN#425] Arab. "Ayát" lit. "signs," here "miracles of the truth," 1. c. Koranic versets as opposed to chapters. The ranks of the enemy represent the latter, sword-cuts the former--a very persuasive mode of preaching.

 [FN#426] Lane (M. E. chapt.. iii.) shows by a sketch the position of the worshipper during this "Salám" which is addressed, some say, to the guardian angels, others suppose to all brother-believers and angels.

 [FN#427] i.e., where the Syrians found him.

 [FN#428] i.e., Dedianus Arabised; a name knightly and plebian.

 [FN#429] In such tales the Wazir is usually the sharp-witted man, contrasting with the "dummy," or master.

 [FN#430] Carrier-pigeons were extensively used at this time. The Caliph Al-Násir li-Díni ‘lláh (regn. A.H. 575=1180) was, according to Ibn Khaldún, very fond of them. The moderns of Damascus still affect them. My successor, Mr. Consul Kirby Green, wrote an excellent report on pigeon-fancying at Damascus. The so-called Maundeville or Mandeville in A. D. 1322 speaks of carrier-pigeons in Syria as a well-known mode Of intercourse between lord and lord.

 [FN#431] Mohammed who declared "There is no monkery in Al-Islam," and who virtually abolished the priest, had an especial aversion to the shaveling (Ruhbán). But the "Gens æterna in quâ nemo nascitur" (Pliny v. 17) managed to appear even in Al-lslam, as Fakirs,, Dervishes, Súfis, etc. Of this more hereafter.

 [FN#432] i.e. her holiness would act like a fascinating talisman.

 [FN#433] The "smoking out" practice is common amongst the Arabs: hence Marshal Pelissier's so- called " barbarity." The Public is apt to forget that on a campaign the general's first duty is to save his own men by any practice which the laws of fair warfare do not absolutely forbid.

 [FN#434] i.e. Mohammed, who promised Heaven and threatened Hell.

 [FN#435] Arab. "Ahr" or "ihr," fornication or adultery, i.e., irreligion, infidelity as amongst the Hebrews (Isaiah xxiii.17).

 [FN#436] A sign of defeat.

 [FN#437] In English "last night": I have already noted that the Moslem day, like the Jewish and the Scandinavian, begins at sundown; and "layl " a night, is often used to denote the twenty-four hours between sunset and sunset, whilst "yaum," a day, would by us be translated in many cases "battle-day."

 [FN#438] Iterum the "Himalayan Brothers."

 [FN#439] Again, Mohammed who promised Good to the Good, and vice versâ.

 [FN#440] They are sad doggrel like most of the pièces d'occasion inserted in The Nights.

 [FN#441] Here "Kahwah" (coffee) is used in its original sense of strong old wine. The derivation is "Akhá"=fastidire fecit, causing disinclination for food, the Matambre (kill- hunger) of the Iberians. In old days the scrupulous called coffee "Kihwah" in order to distinguish it from 'Kakwah," wine.

 [FN#442] i.e. Mohammed, a common title.

 [FN#443] That is, fatal to the scoffer and the impious.

 [FN#444] Equivalent to our "The Devil was sick," etc.

 [FN#445] i.e. to the enemy: the North American Indians (so called) use similar forms of "inverted speech"; and the Australian aborigines are in no way behind them.

 [FN#446] See Vol. i., p. 154 (Night xvi.).

 [FN#447] Arab. "Sauf," a particle denoting a near future whereas "Sa-" points to one which may be very remote.

 [FN#448] From the root "Shanh"=having a fascinating eye, terrifying. The Irish call the fascinater "eybitter" and the victim (who is also rhymed to death) "eybitten."

 [FN#449] i.e., not like the noble-born, strong in enduring the stress of fight.

 [FN#450] i.e., of Abraham. For the Well Zemzem and the Place of Abraham see my Pilgrimage (iii. 171-175, etc.), where I described the water as of salt-bitter taste, like that of Epsom (iii. 203). Sir William Muir (in his excellent life of Mahomet, I. cclviii.) remarks that "the flavour of stale water bottled up for months would not be a criterion of the same water freshly drawn;" but soldered tins-full of water drawn a fortnight before are to be had in Calcutta and elsewhere after Pilgrimage time; and analysis would at once detect the salt.

 [FN#451] Racing was and is a favourite pastime with those hippomanists, the Arabs; but it contrasts strongly with our civilised form being a trial of endurance rather than of speed. The Prophet is said to have limited betting in these words, "There shall be no wagering save on the Kuff (camel's foot), the Hafir (hoof of horse, ass, etc.) or the Nasal (arrow-pile or lance head)."

 [FN#452] In the Mac. Edit. "Arman"=Armenia, which has before occurred. The author or scribe here understands by "Cæsarea" not the old Turris Stratonis, Herod's city called after Augustus, but Cæsareia the capital of Cappadocia (Pliny, vi. 3), the royal residence before called Mazaca (Strabo).

 [FN#453] An idiom meaning "a very fool."

 [FN#454] i.e. Kána (was) má (that which) was (kána).

 [FN#455] A son being "the lamp of a dark house."

 [FN#456] When the Israelites refused to receive the Law (the souls of all the Prophets even those unborn being present at the Covenant), Allah tore up the mountain (Sinai which is not mentioned) by the roots and shook it over their heads to terrify them, saying, "Receive the Law which we have given you with a resolution to keep it" (Koran chaps. xlx. 170). Much of this story is from the Talmud (Abodah Sar. 2, 2, Tract Sabbath, etc.) whence Al-Islam borrowed so much of its Judaism, as it took Christianity from the Apocryphal New Testament. This tradition is still held by the Israelites, says Mr. Rodwell (p. 333) who refers it to a misunderstanding of Exod. xix. 17, rightly rendered in the E. version "at the nether part of the mountain."

 [FN#457] Arab. "Azghán" = the camel-litters in which women travel.

 [FN#458] i.e. to joy foes and dismay friends.

 [FN#459] Whose eyes became white (i.e. went blind) with mourning for his son Joseph (Koran, chaps. xii. 84). He recovered his sight when his face was covered with the shirt which Gabriel had given to the youth after his brethren had thrown him into the well.

 [FN#460] "Poison King" (Persian); or "Flower-King" (Arabic).

 [FN#461] A delicate allusion to the size of her hips and back parts, in which volume is, I have said, greatly admired for the best of reasons.

 [FN#462] All Prophets had some manual trade and that of David was making coats of mail, which he invented, for before his day men used plate-armour. So "Allah softened the iron for him" and in his hands it became like wax (Koran xxi. xxxiv., etc.). Hence a good coat of mail is called "Davidean." I have noticed (First Footsteps, p. 33 and elsewhere) the homage paid to the blacksmith on the principle which made Mulciber (Malik Kabir) a god. The myth of David inventing mail possibly arose from his peculiarly fighting career. Moslems venerate Dáúd on account of his extraordinary devotion, nor has this view of his character ceased : a modern divine preferred him to "all characters in history."

 [FN#463] "Travel by night," said the Prophet, "when the plagues of earth (scorpions, serpents, etc.) afflict ye not." Yet the night-march in Arabia is detestable (Pilgrimage iii.).

 [FN#464] This form of ceremony is called "Istikbál" (coming forth to greet) and is regulated by the severest laws of etiquette. As a rule the greater the distance (which may be a minimum of one step) the higher the honour. Easterns infinitely despise strangers who ignore these vitals of politeness.

 [FN#465] i.e. he will be a desert Nimrod and the game will delight to be killed by him.

 [FN#466] This serves to keep the babe's eyes free from inflammation.

 [FN#467] i.e. Crown of the Kings of amorous Blandishment.

 [FN#468] Lane (i. 531) translates "the grey down." The Arabs use "Akhzar" (prop. "green") in many senses, fresh, gray-hued, etc.

 [FN#469] Allusion to the well-known black banners of the house of Abbas. The Persians describe the growth of hair on a fair young face by, "His cheeks went into mourning for the loss of their charms."

 [FN#470] Arab. "Káfir" a Koranic word meaning Infidel, the active participle of Kufr= Infidelity i.e. rejecting the mission of Mohammed. It is insulting and in Turkish has been degraded to "Giaour." Here it means black, as Hafiz of Shiraz terms a cheek mole "Hindu" i.e. dark-skinned and idolatrous.

 [FN#471] Alluding to the travel of Moses (Koran chaps. xviii.) with Al-Khizr (the "evergreen Prophet") who had drunk of the Fountain of Life and enjoyed flourishing and continual youth. Moses is represented as the external and superficial religionist; the man of outsight; Al-Khizr as the spiritual and illuminated man of insight.

 [FM#472] The lynx was used like the lion in Ancient Egypt and the Chita-leopard in India: I have never seen or heard of it in these days.

 [FN#473] Arab. "Sukúr," whence our "Saker" the falcon, not to be confounded with the old Falco Sacer, the Gr. {greek letters}. Falconry which, like all arts, began in Egypt, is an extensive subject throughout Moslem lands. I must refer my readers to "Falconry in the Valley of the Indus" (Van Voorst, 1852) and a long note in Pilgrimage iii. 71.

 [FN#474] It was not respectful to pitch their camp within dog-bark.

 [FN#475] Easterns attach great importance to softness and smoothness of skin and they are right: a harsh rough epidermis spoils sport with the handsomest woman.

 [FN#476] Canticles vii. 8: Hosea xiv. 6.

 [FN#477] The mesmeric attraction of like to like.

 [FN#478] Arab. "Taswif"=saying "Sauf," I will do it soon. It is a beautiful word–etymologically.

 [FN#479] A very far fetched allusion. The face of the beloved springing from an unbuttoned robe is the moon rising over the camp in the hollow (bat'há).

 [FN#480] Arab. "Kasabát" = "canes," long beads, bugles.

 [FN#481] Koran, xcvi. 5.

 [FN#482] Both words (masc. and fem.) mean "dear, excellent, highly-prized." The tale is the Arab form of the European "Patient Griselda" and shows a higher conception of womanly devotion, because Azizah, despite her wearisome weeping, is a girl of high intelligence and Aziz is a vicious zany, weak as water and wilful as wind. The phenomenon (not rare in life) is explained by the couplet:--

    I love my love with an S—
    Because he is stupid and not intellectual.

This fond affection of clever women for fools can be explained only by the law of unlikeness which mostly governs sexual unions in physical matters; and its appearance in the story gives novelty and point. Aziz can plead only the violence of his passion which distinguished him as a lover among the mob of men who cannot love anything beyond themselves. And none can pity him for losing a member which he so much abused.

 [FN#483] Arab. "Sháhid," the index, the pointer raised in testimony: the comparison of the Eastern and the Western names is curious.

 [FN#484] Musk is one of the perfumes of the Moslem Heaven; and "musky" is much used in verse to signify scented and dark-brown.

 [FN#485] Arab. "Mandíl": these kerchiefs are mostly oblong, the shore sides being worked with gold and coloured silk, and often fringed, while the two others are plain.

 [FN#486] Arab. "Rayhání," of the Ocymum Basilicum or sweet basil: a delicate handwriting, so called from the pen resembling a leaf (?) See vol. i. p. 128. [Volume 1, note 229 & 230]

 [FN#487] All idiom meaning "something unusual happened."

 [FN#488] An action common in grief and regret: here the lady would show that she sighs for union with her beloved.

 [FN#489] Lane (i. 608) has a valuable note on the language of signs, from M. du Vigneau's "Secretaire Turc," etc. (Paris, 1688), Baron von Hammer-Purgstall ("Mines de ['Orient," No. 1, Vienna, 1809) and Marcel's "Comes du Cheykh El-Mohdy" (Paris, 1833). It is practiced in Africa as well as in Asia. At Abeokuta in Yoruba a man will send a symbolical letter in the shape of cowries, palm-nuts and other kernels strung on rice- straw, and sharp wits readily interpret the meaning. A specimen is given in p. 262 of Miss Tucker's "Abbeokuta; or Sunrise within the Tropics."

 [FN#490] Mr. Payne (ii. 227) translates "Hawá al-'Urzí" by "the love of the Beni Udhra, an Arabian tribe famous for the passion and devotion with which love was practiced among them." See Night dclxxxiii. I understand it as "excusable love" which, for want of a better term, is here translated "platonic." It is, however, more like the old "bundling" of Wales and Northern England; and allows all the pleasures but one, the toyings which the French call les plaisirs de la petite ode; a term my dear old friend Fred. Hankey derived from la petite voie. The Afghans know it as "Námzad-bází" or betrothed play (Pilgrimage, ii. 56); the Abyssinians as eye-love; and the Kafirs as Slambuka a Shlabonka, for which see The traveller Delegorgue.

 [FN#491] "Turk" in Arabic and Persian poetry means a plunderer, a robber. Thus Hafiz: "Agar án Turk-i-Shirázi ba-dast árad dil-i-márá," If that Shirazi (ah, the Turk!) would deign to take my heart in hand, etc.

 [FN#492] Arab. "Názir," a steward or an eye (a "looker"). The idea is borrowed from Al-Hariri (Assemblies, xiii.), and,--

 [FN#493] Arab. "Hájib," a groom of the chambers, a chamberlain; also an eyebrow. See Al-Hariri, ibid. xiii. and xxii.

 [FN#494] This gesture speaks for itself: it is that of a dyer staining a cloth. The "Sabbágh's" shop is the usual small recess, open to the street and showing pans of various dyes sunk like "dog-laps" in the floor.

 [FN#495] The Arab. "Sabt" (from sabata, he kept Sabt) and the Heb. "Sabbath" both mean Saturn's day, Saturday, transferred by some unknown process throughout Christendom to Sunday. The change is one of the most curious in the history of religions. If there be a single command stronger than all others it is "Keep the Saturday holy." It was so kept by the Founder of Christianity; the order was never abrogated and yet most Christians are not aware that Sabbath, or "Sawbath," means Saturn's day, the "Shiyár" of the older Arabs. And to complete its degradation "Sabbat" in French and German means a criaillerie, a "row," a disorder, an abominable festival of Hexen (witches). This monstrous absurdity can be explained only by aberrations of sectarian zeal, of party spirit in religion.

 [FN#496] The men who cry to prayer. The first was Bilál, the Abyssinian slave bought and manumitted by Abu Bakr. His simple cry was "I testify there is no Iláh (god) but Allah (God)! Come ye to prayers!" Caliph Omar, with the Prophet's permission, added, "I testify that Mohammed is the Apostle of Allah." The prayer-cry which is beautiful and human, contrasting pleasantly with the brazen clang of the bell. now is

    Allah is Almighty (bis).
    I declare no god is there but Allah (bis).
    Hie ye to Rogation (Hayya=halumma).
    Hie ye to Salvation (Faláh=prosperity, Paradise).
    ("Hie ye to Edification," a Shi'ah adjunct).
    Prayer is better than sleep (in the morning, also bis).
    No god is there but Allah

This prayer call is similarly worded and differently pronounced and intoned throughout Al-Islam.

 [FN#497] i.e. a graceful youth of Al-Hijaz, the Moslem Holy Land, whose "sons" claim especial privileges.

 [FN#498] Arab. "harf'= a letter, as we should say a syllable.

 [FN#499] She uses the masculine "fatá," in order to make the question more mysterious.

 [FN#500] The fountain-bowl is often ornamented by a rude mosaic of black and white marble with enlivenments of red stone or tile in complicated patterns.

 [FN#501] Arab. "Kubád" = shaddock (citrus decumana): the huge orange which Captain Shaddock brought from the West Indies; it is the Anglo-Indian pompelmoose, vulg. pummelo. An excellent bitter is made out of the rind steeped in spirits. Citronworts came from India whence they spread throughout the tropics: they were first introduced into Europe by the heroic Joam de Castro and planted in his garden at Cintra where their descendants are still seen.

 [FN#502] Arab. "Bakláwah," Turk. "Baklává," a kind of pastry with blanched almonds bruised small between layers of dough, baked in the oven and cut into lozenges. It is still common

 [FN#503] Her just fear was that the young woman might prove "too clever by half" for her simpleton cousin.

 [FN#504] The curse is pregnant with meaning. On Judgment-day the righteous shall arise with their faces shining gloriously: hence the blessing, "Bayyaz' Allaho wajh-ak" (=Allah whiten thy countenance!). But the wicked shall appear with faces scorched black and deformed by horror (Koran xxiv.): hence "God blacken thy brow!" I may observe that Easterns curse, the curse being everywhere the language of excited destructiveness; but only Westerns, and these chiefly English, swear, a practice utterly meaningless. "Damn it" without specifying what the "it" is, sounds like the speech of a naughty child anxious only to use a "wicked word." "Damn you!" is intelligible all the world over. It has given rise to "les goddams" in France, "Godámes" in the Brazil and "Gotáma" amongst the Somal of Eastern Africa, who learn it in Aden,

 [FN#505] Arab. "Zardah," usually rice dressed with saffron and honey, from Pers. "Zard," saffron, yellow. See Night dcxii.

 [FN#506] Vulgarly called "knuckle-bone," concerning which I shall have something to say.

 [FN#507] A bit of wood used in the children's game called "Táb" which resembles our tip-cat (Lane M. E. chaps. xvii.).

 [FN#508] Arab. "Balah," the unripened date, which is considered a laxative and eaten in hot weather.

 [FN#509] Lane (i. 611), quoting Al-Kazwíní, notes that the date-stone is called "Nawá" (dim. "Nawáyah") which also means distance, absence, severance. Thus the lady threatens to cast off her greedy and sleepy lover.

 [FN#510] The pad of the carob-bean which changes little after being plucked is an emblem of constancy.

 [FN#511] This dirham=48 grains avoir.

 [FN#512] The weight would be round: also "Hadíd" (=iron) means sharp or piercing (Koran chaps. Vi]. 21). The double "swear" is intended to be very serious. Moreover iron conjures away fiends: when a water-spout or a sand-devil (called Shaytán also in Arabia) approaches, you point the index at the Jinn and say, "Iron, O thou ill-omened one!" Amongst the Ancient Egyptians the metal was ill-omened being the bones of Typhon, 80 here, possibly, we have an instance of early homœopathy--similia similibus.

 [FN#513] Probably fermented to a kind of wine. The insipid fruit (Unnáb) which looks like an apple in miniature, is much used in stews, etc. It is the fruit (Nabak classically Nabik) of Rhamnus Nabeca (or Sidrat) also termed Zizyphus Jujuba, seu Spina Christi because fabled to have formed the crown of thorns: in the English market this plum is called Chinese Japonica. I have described it in Pilgrimage ii. 205, and have noticed the infusion of the leaves for washing the dead (ibid. ii. 105): this is especially the use of the "Ber" in India, where the leaves are superstitiously held peculiarly pure. Our dictionaries translate "Sidr" by "Lote-tree"; and no wonder that believers in Homeric writ feel their bile aroused by so poor a realisation of the glorious myth. The Homerids probably alluded to Hashish or Bhang.

 [FN#514] Arab. "Azrár": the open collar of the Saub ("Tobe") or long loose dress is symptomatic. The Eastern button is on the same principle as ours (both having taken the place of the classical fibula); but the Moslem affects a loop (like those to which we attach our "frogs") and utterly ignores a button-hole.

 [FN#515] Alluding to the ceremonious circumambulation of the Holy House at Meccah: a notable irreverence worthy of Kneph-town (Canopus).

 [FN#516] The ear-drop is the penis and the anklet its crown of glory.

 [FN#517] Equivalent to our "Alas! Alas!" which, by the by, no one ever says. "Awah," like "Yauh," is now a woman's word although used by Al-Hariri (Assembly of Basrah) and so Al-awwáh=one who cries from grief "Awáh." A favourite conversational form is "Yehh" with the aspirate exasperated, but it is an expression of astonishment rather than sorrow. It enters into Europe travel-books.

 [FN#518] In the text "burst her gall-bladder."

 [FN#519] The death of Azizah is told with true Arab pathos and simplicity: it still draws tear. *from the eyes of the Badawi, and I never read it without a "lump in the throat."

 [FN#520] Arab. "Inshallah bukra!" a universal saying which is the horror of travellers.

 [FN#521] I have explained "Nu'uman's flower" as the anemone which in Grecised Arabic is "Anúmiyá." Here they are strewed over the tomb; often the flowers are planted in a small bed of mould sunk in the upper surface.

 [FN#522] Arab. "Barzakh" lit. a bar, a partition: in the Koran (chapts. xxiii. and xxxv.) the space or the place between death and resurrection where souls are stowed away. It corresponds after a fashion with the classical Hades and the Limbus (Limbo) of Christendom, e.g.. Limbus patrum, infantum, fatuorum. But it must not be confounded with Al-A'aráf, The Moslem purgatory.

 [FN#523] Arab. "Zukák al-Nakíb," the latter word has been explained as a chief, leader, head man.

 [FN#524] Moslems never stand up at such times, for a spray of urine would make their clothes ceremonially impure: hence the scrupulous will break up with stick or knife the hard ground in front of them. A certain pilgrim was reported to have made this blunder which is hardly possible in Moslem dress. A high personage once asked me if it was true that he killed a man who caught him in a standing position; and I found to my surprise that the absurd scandal was already twenty years old. After urinating the Moslem wipes the os penis with one to three bits of stone, clay or handfuls of earth, and he must perform Wuzu before he can pray. Tournefort (Voyage au Levant iii. 335) tells a pleasant story of certain Christians at Constantinople who powdered with "Poivre-d'Inde" the stones in a wall where the Moslems were in the habit of rubbing the os penis by way of wiping The same author (ii. 336) strongly recommends a translation of Rabelais’ Torcheculative chapter (Lib i., chaps. 13) for the benefit of Mohammedans.

 [FN#525] Arab. "Nuhás ahmar," lit. red brass.

 [FN#526] The cup is that between the lady's legs.

 [FN#527] A play upon "Sák" = calf, or leg, and "Sákí," a cup-bearer. The going round (Tawáf) and the running (Sa'i) allude to the circumambulation of the Ka'abah, and the running between Mount Safá and Marwah (Pilgrimage ii. 58, and iii. 343). A religious Moslem would hold the allusion highly irreverent.

 [FN#528] Lane (i. 614) never saw a woman wearing such kerchief which is deshabille. It is either spread over the head or twisted turband-wise.

 [FN#529] The "Kasabah" was about two fathoms of long measure, and sometimes 12 ½ feet; but the length has been reduced.

 [FN#530] "Bat and ball," or hockey on horseback (Polo) is one of the earliest Persian games as shown by every illustrated copy of Firdausi's "Shahnámeh." This game was played with a Kurrah or small hand-ball and a long thin bat crooked at the end called in Persian Chaugán and in Arabic Saulaján. Another sense of the word is given in the Burhán-i-Káti translated by Vullers (Lex. Persico-Latinum), a large bandy with bent head to which is hung an iron ball, also called Kaukabah (our "morning-star") and like the umbrella it denotes the grandees of the court. The same Kaukabah particularly distinguished one of the Marquesses of Waterford. This Polo corresponds with the folliculus, the pallone, the baloun-game (moyen âge) of Europe, where the horse is not such a companion of man; and whereof the classics sang:--

    Folle decet pueros ludere, folle senes.

In these days we should spell otherwise the "folle" of seniors playing at the ball or lawn-tennis.

 [FN#531] "Dalíl" means a guide; "Dalílah," a woman who misguides, a bawd. See the Tale of Dalílah the Crafty, Night dcxcviii.

 [FN#532] i.e. she was a martyr.

 [FN#533] Arab. "Ghashím" a popular and insulting term, our "Johnny Raw." Its use is shown in Pilgrimage i. 110.

 [FN#534] Bathers pay on leaving the Hammam; all enter without paying.

 [FN#535] i.e. she swore him upon his sword and upon the Koran: a loaf of bread is sometimes added. See Lane (i. 615).