"Whether the scholars of the Hebrew, Ethiopic, and Arabic," I may remark in the words of M. Kraph ("Outline of the Kisuaheli Language," p. 6), "will derive any important aid from the knowledge of this tongue, is a question which I must answer in the negative; though it cannot be uninteresting to the Arabic scholar to observe the manner in which the Arabic has been amalgamated with the African language."

* * * * *

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1. The people of Harar ignore the origin of their language. It probably dates from our medival time, when the Hadiyah Empire flourished upon the ruins of the Christian states. In the present day it is absolutely confined within the walls of the city, which is surrounded on all sided by Gallas. Through the medium of Harari the Arabic language and the religious sciences are explained to the inhabitants: almost all the women and not a few of the citizens can speak no other tongue. The numerous Somal who visit and temporarily settle at Harar usually learn some sentences. But few penetrate deep into the language: at this moment, in Aden, amongst about 2000, one only is found capable of revising the vocabulary.

2. The Harari appears, like the Galla, the Dankali, and the Somali, its sisters, to be a Semitic graft inserted into an indigenous stock. (376) The pronouns, for instance, and many of the numerals are clearly Arabic, whilst the forms of the verb are African, and not unlike the vulgar tongues of modern India. Again, many of the popular expressions, without which conversation could not be carried on (e.g. Labbay, "here I am," in answer to a call), are pure Arabic. We are justified then in determining this dialect to be, like the Galla, the Dankali, and the Somali, a semi-Semite. (377)

3. The Harari is not a written language, and the Arabic character imperfectly expresses its sound. It excites our wonder to see tongues so elaborate, with rules of eloquence and a poetry cultivated after the canons of rhythm and rhyme, destitute of an alphabet. (378) In Sind and India, on the contrary, every local variety of dialect has its own syllabarium modified from the Arabic or the Sanscrit. To account for the phenomenon, we must take refuge in some psychical cause hitherto unexplained. The Harari, when writing their songs and translations, use the Koranic character.

4. The pronunciation of the Harari dialect, (379) unlike the soft Galla and Somali, is harsh and guttural; a fact which causes astonishment, as it is spoken in a warm climate and within walls, where men generally soften sound. The Arabic letter kh (<A>) is its characteristic.

* * * * *

The letters which require comment in this sketch are--

1. The Arabic hamzah or broken a' (<A>); e.g. ma'altu, day, b'u, a merchant. (380)

2. A peculiar sound resembling chya (<Sanskrit>) in Sanscrit; e.g. koch (<A>) a eunuch. In pronunciation it is sometimes confounded with sh; e.g. abosh or aboch, a man.

3. The Arabic h (<A>); as in gih (<A>), a live coal; zikeh, gold.

4. The Arabic kf (<A>); as in kaytal (<A>), a ship: this sound is also common in Somali.

5. The Sanscrit l (l<Sanskrit>); as in hillu (<A>), truly.

6. The Sanscrit nasal n (<Sanskrit>); as in the pronoun Inyash (<A>), we.

7. The Cerebral t (4<Sanskrit>); as in the word t (<A>), a bone.

Like the Somali, the Harari tongue is remarkable for the hardness and the distinctness with which the consonants, those great discriminators of language, are articulated. To investigate this phenomenon, which has the peculiarity of varying according to the position of the letter, would lead me into a digression for which I have neither time nor space. Whenever a consonant is to be emphasized, it is denoted in the following pages by reduplication.

The system of orthography is the modified form of Sir W. Jones's alphabet: accents, however, have been used to denote the long vowels.

1. a is pronounced as in the English "hat."
2. , as in "father."
3. ay, as in "hay."
4. y, as in the Spanish "ay."
5. i, as in the English "if."
6. , as ee in the English ''sheer. (381)''

Of the Article.

5. The definite is like the indefinite article, inherent in the noun.

e.g. A horse and an ass; fares w wajayr.

The son of the king; nagrsh lijjay.

The following examples will show the peculiarity of this part of speech:--

A plate and the knife; Sehan w mashh.
The town of Aden; Aden bd.
He went to the king; Nagrsh de hr.
The child and the father; Lijjay w au-zo (literally, his father).

Of the Noun.

6. The noun has two genders, Masculine and Feminine.

Masculine nouns may be converted into feminines by three processes. The first changes the terminal vowel into -it, or adds -it to the terminal consonant.

e.g. rg, an old man; rgt, an old woman.
bushsh, a dog; bushsht, a bitch.
wasf, a slave boy; wasft, a slave girl.

Animals of different sexes have different names. and this forms the second process.

e.g br, an ox; lm, a cow.

The third and the most common way of expressing sex is by means of abosh (<A>), "male or man," and inist (corrupted from the Arabic <A>), woman, " female.

They correspond with our " he-" and " she-."

e.g. faras, a stallion; inisti faras, a mare.
abosh baghl, a he mule; inisti baghl, a she mule.

7. The noun has two numbers, Singular and Plural. The affix -sh changes singulars into plurals.

e.g. abosh, a man; aboshsh, men.
wandag, a servant; wandagsh, servants.
gr, a house; grsh, houses.

Nouns ending in the long become plural without reduplicating this letter.

e.g. gf, a slave; gfsh (for gfsh), slaves.
gubn, a harlot; gubnsh, harlots.

When the singular terminates in the sound -ay, so common in the Somali and Harari dialects, the plural is formed by affixing -sh to the consonant preceding that diphthong.

e.g. lijjay, a son; lijjsh (for lijjish), sons.

The same is the case with nouns terminating in .

e.g. kabri, a grave; kabrsh (for kabrish), graves.

When the singular ends in the soft sibilant, it is usually changed into z.

e.g. fares, a horse; farazsh, horses.
irs, a cloth; irzsh, cloths.

8. The noun in Harari, as in the Somali language, has no cases: the following is the way in which casal relations are expressed:--

Nom. and Acc., amr, a chief.
Dative, amr lay, to a chief.
Vocative, amir-o! O chief. (382)
Ablative, amr bay, or be, from a chief.

The Genitive case, as in the Somali, is expressed by simply prefixing the name of the person to the thing possessed.

e.g. The Amir's son, Amir lijjay (literally, Amir-son).

The Sultan's house, Sultn gr.
The gardens of Harar, Gay Harshsh.

To obviate the unintelligibility often arising from this formation, or rather absence of formation, the word zo or so (his) is sometimes added to the name of the thing possessed.

e.g. Ahmad's turban, Ahmad imamah-zo (literally, Ahmad his turban).
The Kazi's brother, Kz h-zo.

Of the Adjective.

9. The adjective, like the noun, has no cases properly so called. In some instances they precede their nouns.

e.g. Ty barti, a black staff.
Gidor abb, a tall man.

At other times they follow their substantives.

e.g. Shundud zikch, a golden necklace.
Majlis gidir, a large assembly.

Adjectives, like nouns, alter their terminations in the feminine form.

e.g. Uzn zalayla, a deaf man; in the feminine, Uzn zalaylit.
Kibr zl, a proud man; in the feminine, Kibr zl.

As in the Somali tongue, degrees of comparison are expressed by phrases, not by any change of the adjective.

e.g. Comparative. (This is greater than that.
(Y be y igadr hal (lit. that than this great is).
Superlative. (This is the greatest.
(Y jamm be igadr hal (lit. this all than great is).

Of Numerals.

10. The following are the cardinal numbers:--

1. Ahad (<A>).
2. Kot.
3. Shsht.
4. Harad (<A>).
5. Hamist (<A>).
6. Saddist.
7. St.
8. Sot or St.
9. Sehtan (Zehtayn).
10. Assir.
11. Ahad assir.
12. Kot w assir.
20. Koyah.
30. Sseh.
40. Arban (?).
50. Hamist assir.
60. Siddist assir.
70. St assir.
80. St assir.
90. Zehtan or Sehtan.
100. Bakl or Boghol (<A>, the Somali word).
1000. Kum (Somali) or Alf (Arabic).

11. The ordinals are formed by affixing -kh to the numerals.

e.g. Ahad-kh, first. Harad-kh, fourth.
Kot-kh, second. Hamist-kh, fifth.
Shsht-kh, third.

12. The fractional numbers are:

1/4 Ruba (Arab. <A>). 3/4 Shshtruba.
1/2 Nus (Ar. <A>) or Keni. 1/3 Shshtsam.

Of Pronouns.

13. The system of pronouns in Harari, as in the Somali language, is artful and somewhat complicated. Like the Arabic it may be divided into separate and affixed. The separate or personal pronouns which have neither gender nor case are:--

Singular. Plural.
1st Pers. n (<A>). Innsh or Inysh.
2nd Pers. Akhkh (<A>). Akhkhsh (<A>)
3rd Pers. Huwa (<A>). (383) Hiyysh.

14. The affixed pronouns or possessives attached to nouns are:--


1st Pers. - e, my or mine. e.g. Gr-e, my house.
2nd Pers. - kh, thy or thine. Gr-kh, thy house.
3rd Pers. - zo, or - so, his. Gr-zo, his house.


1st Pers. - zinya or sinya, our. e.g. Gr-zinya, our house.
2nd Pers. - kho, your. Gr-kho, your house.
3rd Pers. - zinyo or sinyo, their. Gr-zinyo, their house. (384)

In the same way attached pronouns are affixed to verbs:--

e.g. Sit-ayn, give (thou to) me.
Sit-ana, give (thou to) us.

15. The demonstrative pronouns are :

Sing. Y, this.
Y, that.
Plur. Ysh, or y'ach, these.
Y'sh, or y'ch, those.

The interrogative pronouns are the following:--

Mnt (<A>), who?
Mint (<A>), what?

17. The reciprocal pronoun is expressed in Harari, as in Somali, by naf. Another common word is atte,

e.g. n atte hrkho, I myself went,
Akhkh attekh hrkh, thou thyself wentest,
Huwa attezo hre, he himself went.

The Arabic word Ruh (<A> life or soul) is also used for "self " in such phrases as this:--

Mahatkho ruin-e, I smote myself.

Of Verbs.

18. The Harari verb, like the Somali, has only two tenses, a Past and a Present. The Future of the Indicative, as well as the Conditional and the Optative tenses, is formed by adding significant particles and the use of the substantive verb. The root is the 2nd person of the Imperative, and a Prohibitive is obtained by prefixing at (<A>), or by affixing mekh. In the negative forms, the Harari is more artfully constructed than the Somali verb.

19. The following are the two auxiliary verbs.

Past Tense.

(Affirmative Form.)

Singular. 1. I was, n narkho (<A>).
2. Thou wast, Akhkh nrkh.
3. He was, Huwa nr.
Plural. 1. We were, Inysh nrn.
2. Ye were, Akhkhsh narkh (<A>).
3. They were, Hiyysh nr.

(Negative Form.)

Sing. 1. I was not, n alnrkhm (<A>).
2. Thou wast not, Akhkh alnrkhm.
3. He was not, Huwa alnrum.
Plur. 1. We were not, Inysh alnrum.
2. Ye were not, Akhkhsh alnrkhm.
3. They were not, Hiyysh alnrm.

Present Tense.

(Affirmative Form.)

Singular. Plural.
1. I am, n halko. 1. We are, Inysh halna (<A>).
2. Thou art. Akhkh halkh. 2. Ye are, Akhkhsh halkh.
3. He is, Huwa hal (<A>). 3. They are, Hiyysh hal


(Negative Form.)

1. I am not, n elkhm. 1. Inysh elnm.
2. Thou art not, Akhkh elkhm. 2. Akhkhsh elkhm.
3. He is not, Huwa elm. 3. Hiyysh elm.


Singular. Plural.
2. Be thou, Hal (<A>). 2. Be ye, Halkh (<A>).

The second auxiliary has the sense of to become, and corresponds with "jirrah" of the Somal, who express "I am" by w jog, literally, "I stand."

Past Tense.

Sing. 1. I became, n ikan (<A>) narkho.
2. Thou becamest, Akhkh tikn nrkh.
3. He became, Huwa ikni nr.
Plur. 1. We became, Innsh nikn nrn.
2. Ye became, Akhkhsh tikn nrkh.
3. They became, Hiyysh ikn nr.

Present Tense.

Sing. 1. I become, n iknkh (<A>).
2. Thou becomest, Akhkh tiknkh.
3. He becomes, Huwa iknl.
Plur. 1. We become, Inysh niknn (<A>)
2. Ye become, Akhkhsh tiknkhu.
3. They become, Hiyysh iknl.


Singular. Plural.
2. Become thou, Kanni (<A>). 2. Become ye, Knn (<A>).


Sing. 2. Become not, iknnimekh (<A>).
Plur. 2. Become not ye, iknnumekh ( <A>).

23. The following is a specimen of a verb regularly conjugated.

Past Tense.

(Affirmative Form.)

Sing. 1. I went, n letkho.
2. Thous wentest, Akhkh letkh.
3. He went, Huwa leta (<A>).
Plur. 1. We went, Inysh letna (<A>).
2. Ye went, Akhkhsh letkh.
3. They went, Hiyysh let.

(Negative Form.)

Sing. 1. I went not, n alletkhm.
2. Thou wentest not, Akbkh alletkhm.
3. He went not, Huwa alletm.
Plur. 1. We went not, Inysh aletnm.
2. Ye went not, Akhksh alletkhm.
3. They went not, Hiyysh alletm.

Present Tense.

(Affirmative Form.)

Singular. Plural.
1. I go, n iletkh (<A>) 1. Inysh niletn.
2. Thou goest, Akhkh tiletnakh 2. Akhkhsh tiletkh.
3. He goes, Huwa yiletl 3. Hiyysh yiletl.

(Negative Form.)

Sing. 1. I go not, n iletumekh.
2. Thou goest not, Akhkh tiletumekh.
3. He goes not, Huwa iletumel.
Plur. 1. We go not, Inysh niletumens.
2. Ye go not, Akhkhash tiletumekh.
3. They go not, Hiyysh iletuel.

As in the Somali tongue and in the Semitic dialects generally, the Present serves for a Future tense: "I go," for "I shall or will go." A definite future is formed in Harari by adding the substantive verb to a participial form of the verb required to express futurity; e.g.

Sing. 1. I will go, n iletle halkho.
2. Thou wilt go, Akhhk tiletle halkh.
3. He will go, Huwa iletle hal.
Plur. 1. We will go, Inysh niletle halns.
2. Ye will go, Akhkhsh tiletle halkh.
3. They will go, Hiyysh niletle halns.


Singular. Plural.
2. Go thou, Let. 2. Go ye, Let.


2. Go not thou, At let. 2. Go not ye, At let.


Going Yiletl (<A>) Not going, Iletumel.

Gone, Itletle.

* * * * *

Dialogues and Sentences.

Art thou well? Amnta kh?
Are ye well? Amnta kh?
Madam (to elderly female). Abby.
Sir. Abb. Y Sayyid.
Are you well this morning? Amn hadarkh?
Are you well this evening? Amn wa'alkh?
Good morning. Amn be kero.
Good night. Amn be hedero.
I am well. Amn ntan.
I am unwell. Natt halban.
What is the matter with you? Min aganyekh?
Is your family well? Gr hawzum amnta kh?
I am better. Orinty.
What news to-day? Hj min war hal?
Good news to-day. Amn int hj.
It is cooler to-day than yesterday. Tjn be hj baradt.
The air is cold. Df brid int
Come in and sit down. N tageb.
What is thy name? Sumkh mint?
Come here (to woman). Lakambay.
Dost thou drink coffee? Bun tiseshkbi?
I want milk. Hy ikhshakh.
Is water to be had here? M hal ye atybe
Where goest thou? Ayde tahurkh?
I go to Harar. Gay uburkh.
Send away the people. Walamosh y uso'o.
I love you. An waded khsh.
What is shine age? Karnkha aygay sint?
Don't laugh. Asehak.
Raise your legs. Igir hafsh.
Don't go there. At her yadde.
This man is good. Y abb korm int.
He is a great rascal. Huwa gidir harmint.
I don't want you (woman). Ikhsh shmekh.
Go from this. Let yib,--Jehannam har.
Leave my house. Gr-e be wit.
Farewell ! Allahu le amnat! (literally, "In Allah's charge.")
Allah pardon thee! Aufi ashkbkh!
What is the price of this coffee? Y bun min be-tasmakh?
Five ashrafi (385) a bale. Ahad firasilah hamisti ashraf.
This is dear. Y gl int.
This is very cheap. Y kann rakhs int.
Give me bread. Sitain kht.
I will beat thee. n imet akhkh.
I will not give. n istmekh.
I am hungry. Rhbenya.
I am thirsty. Tararenya.
I am tired. Dlgenya.
Where is thy house? Aydenta grkh?
I have much to do to-day. Hji bajh hab halbayn.
We are about to travel. Safar nahurn.
How large is Harar? Gay aygay sint?
How far from this to Harar? Y aty w Gay aygay sint?
How many people at Harar? Gy uso'o aygay sint?
Dost thou know him? Akhkh tokakh?
Dost thou know Arabic? Arab sinn tokkh?
I don't know it. An kumekh.
Hold my horse. Faras lahadlayn.
The price of this horse is a hundred dollars. Y fares bakl kirshi (386) yakchl.
There is. Hal.
What delayed you? Min lahadekh?
Is this knife thine? Y mashh dnatkhnta?
How many horses hast thou? Misti farazsh halakh?
He killed him with a knife. Nifti bayn gadal.
Open the door. Argabg fitah.
Shut the door. Argabg igad.
Fill my pipe. Gy millayn.
Where is the book? Bel kitb?
It is in the box. Sandk bayn halt
What o'clock is it? Min s' ante?
It is one P.M. Zohr be ahad s' ate har.
It is new moon. Warhe bakal.
The sun is eclipsed. Khusf khna irr.

Specimen of a Song in Harari.

Bukh, bukh w tazkirat bukh:
Nabi bakale surre fankazebay.
Alif lm kutub zl be di w mnin tutr.
Sabr w saltin tutr.
Hamistyn zobe nabb azowin tutr.
Nabbi grkho be, gr kho zarra be
Jannat shre be, nabb afosha be
Allah! ilhyo, hurtay malhiyo!


I weep, I weep, and I weep with (fond) remembrance,
(Thinking of) the Prophet's mule (he sitting) beautiful upon her back.
Alif-lm was written, faith and religion carrying,
Patience and prayer carrying,
(For the) fifth time the Prophet carrying,
The Prophet from his house, from the enclosure of his house,
To the midst of Paradise, the Prophet near--
Allah! O my Allah! near him place us!

The names of the months are:--

1. Ashr (meharram).
2. Safarwarhe.
3. Harar mauld (including the two Rabia and the two Jamd.)
7. Rajab.
7. Sha'abn.
9. Ramazn.
10. Shawwl.
11. Zulka'adah.
12. Zulhijjah.

* * * * *

Corn, holcus, and other grains are sold by this measure:

9 Handfuls= 1 Sugud (<A>).
5 Sugud= 1 Tt trad (<A>).
6 Tt trad= 1 Trad.

The usual measures of length are:

Zumzurti (<A>), the span.
Kr (<A>) , the cubit.

The common weights are:

Nuss Ratli, the half pound.
Ratli, the pound.
Nuss farsilah, ten pounds.
Farsilah, the maund, twenty pounds.


N. B.--In the following pages, A. denotes that the word is pure Arabic; A.c. corrupt Arabic; Amh. Amharic; S. Somali. The mark (?) shows that the word is uncertain.


Abandon, v. Giffarr ( <A>).
Abdomen Kars (A. c.).
Abide Tageb
Abode Gr
Above L'ay (<A>)
Absence Zalaylkho
Abuse Masdab
Accumulate Smt
Adulterer Fsik (A.), fem. Fsikt
Afraid Frat
After Ehirr
Afternoon Asr. Asr (A.)
Age Umri (A)
Air Df
Alive (well) Or (<A>)
All Jamm
Also (thus) Azzokt
Always Dime (A.)
Amir's wife Gst
Ancient Rg, fem. Rgt
Angel Malikah (A.)
Anger, s Ghazab (A.)
Angry Ghazbn (A.)
Another Ali (<A>)
Answer Jawab (A.)
Ant (black) Chch
Ant (white) Kaynhr
Arise, v. Halfbal
Arm ji (<A>)
Arm-pit Kilklt
Army Mkhed (<A>) Askar (A.), Amr Askar, the Amir's army.
Arrow Lw
Artificer Sigh (A. esp. " goldsmith")
Ash (ashes) Hamad, pl. Hamadsh
Ask Athebr (?)
Asleep Manyt
Ass Wajayr
Ate (pret.) Bal
At once Ahad s'ah (A.)
Aunt (maternal) Ikhist
Aunt (paternal) Anna (<A>)
Avaricious Bakhl
Awake Hafbal
Away! (begone!) Let!
Axe Kalk, pl. Kalksh.


Back Hch
Bad Yegass
Bag Ks (A )
Baggage Mahaw
Baker Ukht-Zl (fem. as only women sell bread).
Ball (bullet) Rass (A.).
Band Nz (the black satin ribbon worn by women round the head to fasten the fillet which contains the hair).
Band Nagarat (the Amir's kettle-drums, beaten at the hour of night prayers, as tocsin in times of danger, at the two festivals, and whenever the Prince leaves the palace)
Barren (women) Zat wilat, Goblan
Barter Manwat
Base Yegass
Basket Mud
Bath, s. Sagar (prop. a privy).
Bathe Hteb
Battle Gdal
Bazaar Maglah
Beard Daban
Beat (kill) Mahat
Beautiful Korm. Kor-zlah, fem. Korzl
Bed Firsh (A.)
Bedstead Dfn
Bee Nijjt, Aks (?).
Beef Lm Basar
Beer (boozah) Gohay. (Dakhb is beer mixed with mead.)
Before Aykad (<A>). "In early part of," Nad (<A>)
Beggar Sakadad-by (A.c. <A>)
Behind Ehirr
Behold, v Hayj
Belly Kars (A. c.)
Below (beneath) Tahy (<A>)
Bet Shart (A.)
Beyond (outside) Kch
Bile Safr (A.)
Bird f, plur. fsh
Bitch Busht (Bushsht)
Bitter Marr (A. c.<A>).
Black Ty
Blacksmith Tumt
Blind, adj. n-zalayl, fem. n-zalaylt
Blood Dam (A )
Blood-money Diyah (A )
Blunt, adj. Dumdum, brid (A.)
Boat Za'mah (A.)
Body Km (A. c. <A>)
Bone At (<A>)
Book Kitb
Bottle Kirrat (A. c.)
Bow Digu
Box Stn (?).
Boy (son) Lijjay
Bracelet (ivory) j (A.)
Bracelet (mans) Ml dy (the pewter armlet of a Galla chief)
Bracelet (woman's) Shnkhyt
Brain Hangull
Bran (chaff) Hanshar
Brave Gis (S.), ishullo (?)
Bread 'Ukht
Break Sbarr
Breast (girl's) Kunn
Breeches Gannf, Kannf (?)
Bride Arzt (A.c.)
Bridegroom Arz (A. c.)
Bring Adej
Broadcloth Jh (<A>; Ar. <A> Jokh).
Broken Dalll (A.)
Brothers Ih (<A>, A c.).
Bug Tukhn (A. c.)
Bull Br
Burn, v. imp. Mgd
Burnt Mgad
But Lkin (A.).
Butcher Suwyy (A.)
Buttocks Fudd (S.)
Buy Khab (<A>)
Buying and selling Mokhab
By all means L budd (A.)
By fair means Amn be.
By foul means Yegass be.


Calf, m. Rahas
Carpenter Najjr (A.)
Carpet Firsh(A.). Prayer-carpet, Sijjjah (A. c.)
Camel Gamaylah (A. c.), fem. Gamaylit
Cannon Madf (A.)
Cat Adrr, Adan (?).
Cathedral Jmi (A.).
Cattle Dnat.
Certainly Dirkh (S.).
Chain Silsilah (A.).
Change (barter) Manwat.
Charcoal Kasal.
Charm (talisman) Kirts (A.).
Cheap Rakhs (A.).
Child Wald (A. c.), pl. Wildsh.
Cinnamon Korf (A. c.).
Circumcision Absum.
Citron Turung (A. c.).
City Maglah.
Clarified butter Nazf (A.).
Clay Cheb.
Clean Muk ishsh.
Climb, v. Isal.
Cloth (man's "obe") Irs, pl. irzsh.
Cloth (woman's) Glby (worn out of doors over the head). "Ly morad" is that thrown over the shoulders.
Cloth (man's shirt) Gidir kams
Clouds Dnah
Clove Korunful (A.)
Club Gidir bart
Coal (live) Gih
Coffee Bun (A.). "Kutti" is the decoction of the leaf drunk by the Hararis
Cold (catarrh) Hargab
Cole adj. Bird (A. c.)
Colour Jins (A. c.)
Comb Fil (S. firin)
Come! N!
Containing (doing) --Zla
Cook (man) Dirig-zl, Lel (?)
Cook (woman) Dirig-zl, Kibbah-zl
Cooked Khnah
Cooking-pot (earthen) Makto
Copper Nihs (A.)
Coral Murjain (A. c.)
Corpse Janis (A. c.)
Corn Ays (A. c. ?)
Corn Indian Arab ikh, lit. Arab holcus
Corn(Indian roasted) Arab ikh nk
Cotton Tt (<A>)
Cough h (<A>)
Court-yard Katam bar
Cousin (female) Zer kahat
Cousin (male) Zer wald, pl. Zer waldsh
Cow Lm
Cow (milch) Hy-zl
Coward Wahaylo, fem. Wahaylt
Creeper Tj (so called when worn by men upon their turbands and women upon their fillets)
Crepitus Fas (A.)
Crooked Wandll
Crow Kurr
Cubit Kr
Cultivation Zar (A )
Cultivator Argat (opposed to "Gall," a Nomad)
Cummin seed Kamn (A )
Cup Geb
Cupping-horn Mahgt (Mahgt-in is the operator)
Cut Koch
Cuts (in cheek) Makdad (beauty-marks)


Dagger Shotal
Daily Jamm ymm
Dance Fakarr
Danger (fright) Firt
Darkness Jilmah (A. c.)
Date (the fruit) Timir (A. c.). "Barni" is the Maskat date; "Sehr" the small black date; "Farad" the large and juicy red variety
Daughter Kahat
Day Ma'alt
To-day Hj
Yesterday Tjen
Third day ago Sestin
Fourth day ago Rtin
Day after to-morrow Sest
Third day hence Ra'at
Fourth day hence Zirabe'it (?)
Fifth day hence Zikurkust (?).
Dead (man) Janis (A. c.); Mayyit (A.)
Deaf (man) Uzn-zalayl
Deaf (woman) Uzn -zalaylt
Deaf and dumb Ddah, fem. Ddt; it also means idiotic.
Dear, adj. Ghl (A.); Kmah tabig
Death Maut (A.)
Debt Mugot
Deer Waydal
Delay Kalh (<A>)
Denial Nakr (A.); Hsh (A.)
Deponent (witness) Rg
Deposit Amnat (A.)
Descend, v. Wirad (?)
Descent Maurad
Desert, s. Udm bd
Desert, adj. Udm (generally applied to land without trees)
Deserving Wjib (A )
Desire (want) Fj
Devil (Satan) Ibls (A.); Shaytn (A.)
Devil (sand-storm) Df
Die (dice) Lafo (S.)
Difficult Tabg
Dig Hifarr. (A. c.); Khirr (?)
Dirt Wasakh (A.)
Discharge (release) Gifarr
Disease Matt
Disease (venereal) Jabt (S. Jabt)
Dish Sehn (A. c.)
Dish-cover Mot; mo'ot (generally made of plaited straw)
Distant Ruhuk (<A>)
Ditch (pit) Chayr
Doer (masc. or fem.) In (?).
Dog Bushsh
Dollar Karsh (Ar. Kirsh)
Door Gebt
Doubt Shakk (A.)
Doubtful Shakany (A. c.)
Dream Birzz
Dress Libsh (A. c.); Irzsh
Dried Darak
Drink, v Sch
Drinkables Mashj
Drug Daw (A.)
Drum Karab
Drummer Karab-zl
Drunk (intoxicated) Sakhr (A. c.)
Dry, v. Darak; Darag
Dumb, masc. Jabak; arrt-zalayl
Dumb, fem. Jabakt; arrat-zalaylt
Dust Ss (Ses S.)
Dwarf, masc. Hajayr
Dwarf, fem. Hajayrt


Each Ahad (A. c.)
Ear Uzn. Uzun (A. c.)
Ear-ring Faror
Earth Dash (Tashsh ?)
East rrtj
Easy Yasr (A.)
Eat! v Bil
Eatables Mabl. "Eatables and drinkables," mabl w mashj
Egg Ukoh (<A>)
Eight Sot
Eighth Sotkh
Eighty Sot assir
Elder, eldest Gidirr
Elephant Dukhun
Eleven Assir ahad
Eloquent Tihayn
Employment Hab
Empty Kof
End! (finish!) Tabosh
Ended Tabayy
Enemy Dn
Enough Hidak. Yokl
Envy Husd (A.)
Envious Hasd (A.c.)
Escape Sik
Eunuch Koch. Towsh (A.)
Evening Mash (A.)
Every Jamm (A. c.)
Everything Jamm Shiyn (A. c.)
Evidence Rg
Exchange Manwat
Expense Farz
Eye n (A. c.)
Eyelash n chigar


Face Ft
Fces Gaf: Kaf (S.)
Faith (religion) Dn (A.)
Fall, v. Widak
False Kizbny
Fame Nms (A.)
Fan (fly-flapper) Zimbi Marwahah (A.)
Far Ruhug
Farewell! Amn! (A.)
Farmer Harrsh.
Fast, adv. Fitan.
Fast, s. Soman (A. c.)
Fat (strong) Jabbir (A. c.); Kass (S.) Wadal.
Fate Ayym (A.)
Father wa
Fault Ghalat (A.)
Fear! v. Fir
Fearful Frat
Feather Bll (S. Bl)
Feet Ingirsh. Pl. of Ingir
Female Inist (A. c. ?).
Fetch Adej
Fetters Ingir birat
Fever Wiy natt
Few Tinne'o
Fillet (for woman's hair) Gft
Finger Atabiny. Pl. Atbinysh
Fire Isd
Fire-wood Mamgad
First Ahadkh
Fish Tlam
Fist Dubuj
Five Hamist
Fifth Hamistikh
Fifty Hamist assir
Flag lan (A. c. and S.)
Flea Kunj; Takf(?); injir bodo(S.)
Flesh Basar
Fly Zimb (A. c.)
Fodder Sa'ar
Food Mabl
Fool Jinm (A. c.)
Foot (leg) Ingir
Footstep Hard
Force Tkh (A. c.)
By force Yegass be
Forehead Fi'it
Fort Kala gr; darb-gr
Forty Arban (A.)
Foul (impure) Najis (A.)
Four Harad; harat
Fourth Haratkh
Fowl Atwg, fem. atwgt
Friend Rafk (A.); marren (?)
Frog Ankurrat
From Be; bay
Full Mullu (?)
Gall (bile) Safr (A )
Game Dabl (esp. the La'ab al-Khayl)
Gambler Kammr (A.)
Garden Harsh
Gardener Harshi-wandag
Garlic Tumm (A. c.); ton (S.)
Gate Br (A.)
Gate-keeper Br-goit
Gather, v. Smt
Gazelle Sagro (S.)
Generous Sakh (A.)
Generosity Sakhwat (A.)
Get up! v. Hafbal
Gift Hadiyah (A.); mast (?)
Ginger Zanjabl
Giraffe Girh (S.)
Girl (marriageable) Wahash. Pl. Wahashi'ch
Girl (aged) Gidir Wahash
Puella suta Duffun Wahash (sicut est mos Somalorum et nationis Gall)
Puella aperta Kufut Wahash
Girl (slave) Wasift; Amharet
Girl Kahat.
Give, v. Sit (S.)
Glad Tass; tasstass
Glass (cup) Ks (A.)
Glass (looking) Mur'it (A. c.)
Glass (bootle, black) Kirrat Ty
Glass (red) Kayh (<A>)
Glory Nms (A.)
Glue (gum) Mukt
Go! v. Let (to a woman, Lech)
Gone (pret.) Let
Let go! Hidak; Gifarr
Goat (he) Kurm
Goat (she) Dau
God Goita. N.B.--The Argobbas call the Supreme Being "Gaeto," the Gallas "Goite" or "Wk," and the Somal "Aybah" (<A>)
Gold Zikeh (A. c.)
Goods Mahw
Good Korm
Good news War amn
Governor Nagsh
Grandfather Bb
Grandmother Umm
Grape Anab (A.)
Grass Sa'ar
Grass-cutter (sickle) Zhab
Gratis Bilsh (A.)
Grave Kabr (A.); Plur. Kabrsh
Grave (saint's) Awsh Kabr
Gravel n
Great, adj. Gidr
Greatest Jamm be Gadr
Green Dm: fem. Dmt. Akhzar (A.)
Groom Zhab
Ground Tashsh. (?)
Ground (sloping) Goban
Guest Nugda
Guide ga ykzalinta (?)
Guinea Fowl Zikr
Gum Mukt
Gun Nifti
Gunpowder Brd (A. c.)


Habitation Gr
Hail, s. n Zinb
Hail, v. Amn bidchkh
Hair Chigar
Hair (pecten) Foch chigar
Hair-pin (woman's) Fil
Half Nuss (A. c.): Ken
Hammer Madosh; Buruj (?)
Hand Ij
Handful Mahfass; Antobo (?)
Handwriting Kitab
Hang (tie, v.) Igad; Balnaya (S.)
Harbour Mars (A.)
Hare Askok; Bakhayla (S.)
Harlot Gubn
Haste! Fitan
Hatchet Kalk
Hay Sa'ar
Head Urus (A. c.)
Health fet (A. c.)
Hear Sim (A. c.)
Heart Wazanah
Heavy Razn (A )
He Huwa
Heel Kb (A. c.)
Heir Yurs Zlint. (The Arabic word "Mirs" is used for a legacy.)
Hell Azb (A.); Jahanam (A.)
Here Idday. "Here I am," Labbay (A.)
High (tall, long) Gidorr
Hill, s. Sar
His Zo or So
Ho! Yb (S.); Akhkh y
Hog Hariyy
Holcus Sorghum Ikh
Hole Gad
Holloa! Akhkh y
Honey Ds
Hoof Ingir
Horn (beast's) Karr (A. c.)
Horn (cupping) Mahgt
Horse Faras (in Ar. a mare; in Som. a horse)
Hot Wiy
House Gr
House (thatched) Sa'ar gr; Gambisa
House (stone) Darb gr
How much? Mist?
Humble Miskn (A.)
Hundred Bakl
Hunger Abr
Hungry Rahab
Husband Abosh
Hut Wantaf gr (the Badawi's mat tents, called by the Somal, Gurg)
I, pers. pron. n
Ice M darak
Idle (useless) Mabll
If Girr (?)
Ignorant Jhil (A.); Wj (the latter generally means "young")
Immense Bajh
Immerse, v. Esb
Immediately Fitan
In Bayn (A ?)
In that place Yadday
Infirm Gof
Inform, v. Warosh
Information War (Amh )
Injury Khasr (A.)
Ink Madd (A. c. from <A> ?)
Inkstand Dibet (A. c.)
Inquire, v. Athebr (?)
Inside Ust
Instead Manwat; Tanwat
Intelligent A'kil (A )
Inter, v. Kibarr
Interest (usury) Ribh (A.)
Intestines (lower) Marach
Intestines (higher) Kars (A. c.)
Intoxication Kayf (A.)
Intoxicating articles Khamr (A.)
Iron Birat (S. bir.)
Itch, s. Wi'ir
Ivory j; dukhun-sin


Jackal Aizagad (S. dagal, "burrowing below ground")
Jail Hasb (A. c.)
Javelin Waram (S.)
Jewel Jauhar (A.)
Joke Charrakah (<A>)
Joker Fhch
Journey Safar (A.)
Journey (by day) Hj Safar
Journey (by night) Mishayt Safar
Jowari (holcus) Ikh
Jowari (straw) Karah
Joy Farhah (A.); Tast
Judge Fikh (A.); Kz (A.)
Jump, v. Shafbal
Just A'dil
Juvenile Darm


Kat-plant (<A>) Jt
Kettle Disd (A. c.); Makat
Key Miftah (A.); Mifchh (A. c.)
Kick, v. Rigat
Kidney Kuly (A. c.)
Kill Gidal
Kiss, v. Mah (as among the Somal it is disliked.)
Kitchen Aweld
Kite (bird) Till
Knee Gilib
Knife Mashh
Knot Kuturr
Know k
Knowledge Ilm (A )
Koosoo St (the well-known vermifuge, called Hedo by the Somal)


Labour Ta'ab (A.)
Lake (colour) Kayh (<A>)
Lame Ingir zalayl
Lamp Makhtt
Landlord Gr-zl
Lane Kachn uga
Language Sinn
Large Gidir
Lass Kahat
Laughter Sahak (<A> A. c.); Mashak (?)
Law Sharah (A.)
Lazy Mabll
Lead Riss
Leaf Warak (A.); Kutt
Leak (hole) Nudl
Lean Gofy
Learning, s. Ilm (A.)
Learned (man) Kabr (A.); Shaykh (A.)
Least Jamm be angl
Leather (hide) Gog
Leech Aykt ul'l (S.)
Left Gur (Gragnay Amh. Guray S. "left-handed")
Left hand Gur ig
Leg Ingir
Lend, v. Likch
Leopard Gargor
Less Ansl
Liar Kizbany
Lie Kiz (A. c.)
Light, adj. Khaff (A.); Kaff (A. c.)
Lightning Birik (A. c.); Birig
Like Kut (y kut, "like this." Azzokut, "like unto him")
Lime (fruit) Zarbiss
Lime (cement) Nrat (A.)
Lion Wang
Lips Laflaf
Listen, v. Sim
Little Tt (<A>)
Liver Kt
Living H (<A> A. c.)
Lo! Haych
Load T'an
Locust Kafjor
Look, v. Haych
Loose (open), v. Fitah; Matmas
Loss Khasr (A.); Kobul
Lose (the way, &c.) (ga) Kabad
Love Ishk (A.)
In love (man) Abosh shak
In love (woman) Indosh shakt
Louse Kmy (A. c. ?)
Low, adj. Hchr
Mad Jinm
Mad-dog Jinm bush
Madam Abby
Magic Fal (S.)
Magician Fal-zl
Maid servant Gfit
Main mast Gidir dagal
Make, v. sh
Malady Natt
Male Abosh
Malice Dnah
Man Abosh
Many Bajh
Many times Bajh gir
March, s. Malayt
Mare Inist fares
Mariner Bahr (A.)
Mark, s. Ast
Market place Maglah
Marriage Mans
Marriage-portion Mehr (A.)
Married (man) Misht-hl
Married (woman) Abosh-hl
Master Marn
Mat Saylan
Match (gun's) Nift fatlat
Mead Taj
Meal (ground corn) Ays fchah
Measure Sifar
Meat Basar
Merchant B'u: tjir
Message Lo'okh
Middle Gutt; ust (?): in the middle, gutt bayn
Milk Hy
Milk-pot Kaddah
Milk-pot cover Off
Minaret Khutb
Mine (it is) n zd int
Misery Masbah (A. c.)
Model yinah (A.)
Money Mahallak (a brass coin current at Harar)
Monkey Zgar
Month Warhay
Moon Charak
In the morning Subh (A.)
Mortar Mokaj (the pestle is called "Kaball")
Mortgage Rahan (A.); Luhut
Mosquito Bimb
Mother A'e
Mould (earth) Afar
Mountain Sar
Mouse Fr (A. c.)
Mouth Afe (Amh. S.)
Mud Cheb
Mule Baghl
Murder Mot
Murderer Igadl-zl; Gady (?)
Murdered Gidal
Musjid (mosque) Masgt
Musk Misk (A). Zabd (A. civet, generally confounded by Orientals with musk)
Mustachio Shrib (A.)
My ---e
Myrrh Karab


Nail Mismr (A.)
Nail (hand) Tifir (A. c.)
Naked Kofh
Name Sum (A. c.)
Narrow Chink
Nasty Yegass
Navel Hamburt.
Near Kurr
Necessary (it is) Yakhnl
Necessity Hjah (A.)
Neck Angat
Necklace Shandd
Needle Morf
Needy Fukr
Negro Gf
Neighbour Afosh
Nest f gr
Never Abadan (A.)
Never mind Ahadm ayl
New Hajs
News War (S.)
Night Art
By night Mushayt
Nine Sehtan; Zehtyn
Ninth Sehtan kh
Ninety Sehtan
Nipple (man's) Tt (<A>)
Nipple (woman's) Kunn
No! May!
Nobody (there is) Uso'o aylm
Nonsense Kishn
North Jh (A.); Kiblah (A.)
Nose f
Nostril f nudl
There is nothing Aylm
Now Akhkh
Number Helk


Oath Tirayt
Ocean Bahr (A )
Oil Salayt (A.)
Old Rg, fem. Rgt
Omen Fl (A.)
On (upon) La'ay
Once Ahad mutt; Ahad gr
At once Fitan
One Ahad
One third Shsht-sm (A. <A>)
One-armed Ahad j zalayl
One-eyed Ahad n zalayl
One-legged Ahad ingir zalayl
Onion Shunkort
Open, v. Fitah
Opened Futoh
Oppressor Zlim (A.)
Oppression Zulmi (A. c.)
Or Walau (?). Amm (A.)
Order Amr (A )
Orphan Yetm (A.); "'e zalayl," motherless; "wa zalayl," fatherless
Ostrich Guryy (S.)
Our Zinya
Outside Mant
Owner Zl, fem. Zl
Ox Br


Pace Malayt
Pair Kut; Ko'ot
Palace Nagsh gr
Palm (hand's) Kaff' (A. c.)
Paper Talhayy
Paramour (fem.) Gazan
Partner Shark (A.)
Pass, v. Let
Path Kachn ga
Pauper Zayg
Pawn Rahan (A )
Peace Amn (A )
Pearl Ll (A.)
Pen Kalam (A )
Penis Gantir
People Uso'o
Pepper (black) Arab barbar
Pepper (red) Barbar
Perform, v. Osh
Perspiration Wiz
Pestle Kaball
Piece Koch (?)
Pig Hariyy; Karkarr
Pigeon Hamm (A. c.)
Pillow Makhadd (A.)
Pimple Km
Pin Fil
Pinch, v. Kont
Pipe (smoking) Gy (the Indian "Gurgur")
Pipe tube Bk
Pistol Tinneo Naft
Pit (cesspool) Gad
Pity Rahmah (A.)
Place Att
Plain Dd
Plantain Mauz (A )
Plate (for baking bread) Kibbah (A. c.); Tbah (?)
Platter (wooden) Gabat
Plough Willt; Mahras (A.)
Plunder Mahmat
Pocket Ks (A )
Poetry Fakarr
Poison Summ (A )
Poisoned Summ-zl
Pomegranate Rummn (A.)
Ponderous Razn (A )
Possible (it is) Yakhnl
Pot (earthen) Makat
Pot-bellied Kas-zl
Pound (weight) Ratl
Pox Kitin
Pretence Haylah (A.)
Pregnant Kars; Zl
Price By
Pride Kibr (A )
Priest Fakh (A )
Prison Hasb (A.)
Prisoner gud
Privy Sagara
Procurable Yaganyo
Prodigious Ajab (A.)
Profit Naf (A. c.)
Proof Rag
Proud (man) Kibr-zl; Kibrany
Proud (woman) Kibr-zl; Kibryyt
Provisions Mabl
Pud. Dr
Pumpkin Arab dubb (S.)
Purse Ks (A.)


Quadruped Dnat
Quantity Mist
Quarter Rub (A )
Quarter (of town) Afoch
Queen Gst
Question Mathebar
Quickly Fitan
Quill Bll (S.)
Quiver Hinnch


Rage Za'al (A.); herr
Raid Dna
Raiment Irzsh
Rain Zinb
Raise, v. Hafush
Raisin Zabb (A )
Ram Ty
Ran, v. pret. Sak
Rapid Fitan
Rascal Mabll
Rat Fr (A )
Raven Kurr
Raw Ter
Razor Shld (?)
Read Kira (A. c.)
Real (dollar) Karsh
Rebel s (A.)
Rebellion Balw (A.)
Receive Nis
Red Kayh: fem. Kayht
Region Bd
Regret Hamm (A. c.); Ghamm (A. c.)
Rein (bridle) Hakam (S.)
Relations Ahl (A.)
Remain Kirr (A. c.)
Remainder Karr
Remedy Daw
Remote Ruhuk, ruhug
Remove st
Repletion Tuf (?)
Reply War. (Bring a reply: "War adej." Take my reply: "Ware ust.")
Reptile Hubb
Residence Gr
Rest, s. Rhah (A.)
Return (i.e. give me back) Argabgilayn
Revenge, s. Kiss (A.)
Take revenge Kiss ush
Reverse, v. Gargab
Reward Sakah; dnat (?)
Rib Maytak
Rich Ghan (A )
Rice Ruz (A.)
Ride, v. Isal
Right (proper) Korm
Right hand Kainyt
Right and left Gur w Kainyt
Ring Makhtar
Riot Matmhat
Rise up Hafbal
Rising (ground) Kart
Risk Fir
River Zar; Masr (?)
Road ga
Roast, v. Absil. (Roast the meat. "Basar absil.")
Rob, v. Rojh. (He robbed me. "Rojhbayn.")
Robber Rojh
Robbery Mrojha
Robe (woman's) Indosh rs
Robe (blue) Ty rs
Robe (white) Najh rs
Rock Sar
Rogue Mabll
Roof Darbenj
Room Kitrat
Root Sirr; Hedid (S.)
Rosary Tasbih (A.)
Rose-water M-ward (A.)
Rope Fatt
Ruin Kh'rb (A.)
Ruler Nagsh
Run, v. Tarwat
Run away! Rot! Sik!


Sack (ox-skin) Dawull (large bags used on journeys)
Sack (sheep-skin) Jrb (A. c. small saddle-bags; the bags for asses are called "Matan")
Saddle Kor (S. Kore); Hnk (?)
Saffron Waras (A.)
Saint Wal
Salt Ass
Sand Afar
Sandals Ashn
Sash (girdle) Hankot
Say, v. Asaynn
Scales Mzn (A.)
A single scale Kaff
Scent Schn
Scissors Makrajah
Scout Illah (S.)
Scum Wasakh (A.)