"Whether the scholars of the Hebrew, Ethiopic, and Arabic," I may remark in the words of M. Kraph ("Outline of the Kisuaheli Language," p. 6), "will derive any important aid from the knowledge of this tongue, is a question which I must answer in the negative; though it cannot be uninteresting to the Arabic scholar to observe the manner in which the Arabic has been amalgamated with the African language."

* * * * *

1. The people of Harar ignore the origin of their language. It probably dates from our mediæval time, when the Hadiyah Empire flourished upon the ruins of the Christian states. In the present day it is absolutely confined within the walls of the city, which is surrounded on all sided by Gallas. Through the medium of Harari the Arabic language and the religious sciences are explained to the inhabitants: almost all the women and not a few of the citizens can speak no other tongue. The numerous Somal who visit and temporarily settle at Harar usually learn some sentences. But few penetrate deep into the language: at this moment, in Aden, amongst about 2000, one only is found capable of revising the vocabulary.

2. The Harari appears, like the Galla, the Dankali, and the Somali, its sisters, to be a Semitic graft inserted into an indigenous stock. (376) The pronouns, for instance, and many of the numerals are clearly Arabic, whilst the forms of the verb are African, and not unlike the vulgar tongues of modern India. Again, many of the popular expressions, without which conversation could not be carried on (e.g. Labbay, "here I am," in answer to a call), are pure Arabic. We are justified then in determining this dialect to be, like the Galla, the Dankali, and the Somali, a semi-Semite. (377)

3. The Harari is not a written language, and the Arabic character imperfectly expresses its sound. It excites our wonder to see tongues so elaborate, with rules of eloquence and a poetry cultivated after the canons of rhythm and rhyme, destitute of an alphabet. (378) In Sind and India, on the contrary, every local variety of dialect has its own syllabarium modified from the Arabic or the Sanscrit. To account for the phenomenon, we must take refuge in some psychical cause hitherto unexplained. The Harari, when writing their songs and translations, use the Koranic character.

4. The pronunciation of the Harari dialect, (379) unlike the soft Galla and Somali, is harsh and guttural; a fact which causes astonishment, as it is spoken in a warm climate and within walls, where men generally soften sound. The Arabic letter khá (<A>) is its characteristic.

* * * * *

The letters which require comment in this sketch are--

1. The Arabic hamzah or broken a' (<A>); e.g. ma'altu, day, bá'u, a merchant. (380)

2. A peculiar sound resembling chya (<Sanskrit>) in Sanscrit; e.g. koch (<A>) a eunuch. In pronunciation it is sometimes confounded with sh; e.g. abosh or aboch, a man.

3. The Arabic (<A>); as in gih (<A>), a live coal; zikeh, gold.

4. The Arabic káf (<A>); as in kaytal (<A>), a ship: this sound is also common in Somali.

5. The Sanscrit l (l<Sanskrit>); as in hillu (<A>), truly.

6. The Sanscrit nasal n (<Sanskrit>); as in the pronoun Inyash (<A>), we.

7. The Cerebral t (4<Sanskrit>); as in the word át (<A>), a bone.

Like the Somali, the Harari tongue is remarkable for the hardness and the distinctness with which the consonants, those great discriminators of language, are articulated. To investigate this phenomenon, which has the peculiarity of varying according to the position of the letter, would lead me into a digression for which I have neither time nor space. Whenever a consonant is to be emphasized, it is denoted in the following pages by reduplication.

The system of orthography is the modified form of Sir W. Jones's alphabet: accents, however, have been used to denote the long vowels.

1. a is pronounced as in the English "hat."
2. á, as in "father."
3. ay, as in "hay."
4. áy, as in the Spanish "ay."
5. i, as in the English "if."
6. í, as ee in the English ''sheer. (381)''

Of the Article.

5. The definite is like the indefinite article, inherent in the noun.

e.g. A horse and an ass; fares w wajayr.

The son of the king; nagárshí lijjay.

The following examples will show the peculiarity of this part of speech:--

     A plate and the knife; Sehan wá masháh.
     The town of Aden; Aden bád.
     He went to the king; Nagárshí de hárá.
     The child and the father; Lijjay wá au-zo (literally, his father).

Of the Noun.

6. The noun has two genders, Masculine and Feminine.

Masculine nouns may be converted into feminines by three processes. The first changes the terminal vowel into -it, or adds -it to the terminal consonant.

e.g. rágá, an old man; rágít, an old woman.
bushshí, a dog; bushshít, a bitch.
wasíf, a slave boy; wasífít, a slave girl.

Animals of different sexes have different names. and this forms the second process.

e.g bárá, an ox; lám, a cow.

The third and the most common way of expressing sex is by means of abosh (<A>), "male or man," and inistí (corrupted from the Arabic <A>), woman, " female.

They correspond with our " he-" and " she-."

e.g. faras, a stallion; inisti faras, a mare.
abosh baghl, a he mule; inisti baghl, a she mule.

7. The noun has two numbers, Singular and Plural. The affix -ásh changes singulars into plurals.

e.g. abosh, a man; aboshásh, men.
wandag, a servant; wandagásh, servants.
gár, a house; gárásh, houses.

Nouns ending in the long á become plural without reduplicating this letter.

e.g. gáfá, a slave; gáfásh (for gáfáásh), slaves.
gubná, a harlot; gubnásh, harlots.

When the singular terminates in the sound -ay, so common in the Somali and Harari dialects, the plural is formed by affixing -ásh to the consonant preceding that diphthong.

e.g. lijjay, a son; lijjásh (for lijjiásh), sons.

The same is the case with nouns terminating in í.

e.g. kabri, a grave; kabrásh (for kabriásh), graves.

When the singular ends in the soft sibilant, it is usually changed into z.

e.g. fares, a horse; farazásh, horses.
irás, a cloth; irázásh, cloths.

8. The noun in Harari, as in the Somali language, has no cases: the following is the way in which casal relations are expressed:--

Nom. and Acc., amír, a chief.
Dative, amír lay, to a chief.
Vocative, amir-o! O chief. (382)
Ablative, amír bay, or be, from a chief.

The Genitive case, as in the Somali, is expressed by simply prefixing the name of the person to the thing possessed.

e.g. The Amir's son, Amir lijjay (literally, Amir-son).

     The Sultan's house, Sultán gár.
     The gardens of Harar, Gay Harshásh.

To obviate the unintelligibility often arising from this formation, or rather absence of formation, the word zo or so (his) is sometimes added to the name of the thing possessed.

     e.g. Ahmad's turban, Ahmad imamah-zo (literally, Ahmad his turban).
The Kazi's brother, Kází íh-zo.

Of the Adjective.

9. The adjective, like the noun, has no cases properly so called. In some instances they precede their nouns.

e.g. Táy barti, a black staff.
Gidor abbá, a tall man.

At other times they follow their substantives.

e.g. Shundud zikch, a golden necklace.
Majlis gidir, a large assembly.

Adjectives, like nouns, alter their terminations in the feminine form.

e.g. Uzn zalayla, a deaf man; in the feminine, Uzn zalaylit.
Kibrí zálá, a proud man; in the feminine, Kibrí zálí.

As in the Somali tongue, degrees of comparison are expressed by phrases, not by any change of the adjective.

e.g. Comparative. (This is greater than that.
(Yá be yí igadrí hal (lit. that than this great is).
Superlative. (This is the greatest.
(Yí jammí be igadrí hal (lit. this all than great is).

Of Numerals.

10. The following are the cardinal numbers:--

       1. Ahad (<A>).
       2. Kot.
       3. Shíshtí.
       4. Harad (<A>).
       5. Hamistí (<A>).
       6. Saddistí.
       7. Sátí.
       8. Sot or Sút.
       9. Sehtan (Zehtayn).
      10. Assir.
      11. Ahad assir.
      12. Kot wá assir.
      20. Koyah.
      30. Sáseh.
      40. Arbaín (?).
      50. Hamistí assir.
      60. Siddistí assir.
       70. Sát assir.
       80. Sút assir.
       90. Zehtaná or Sehtaná.
      100. Baklá or Boghol (<A>, the Somali word).
     1000. Kum (Somali) or Alfí (Arabic).

11. The ordinals are formed by affixing -khá to the numerals.

e.g. Ahad-khá, first. Harad-khá, fourth.
Kot-khá, second. Hamistí-khá, fifth.
Shíshtí-khá, third.

12. The fractional numbers are:

1/4 Ruba (Arab. <A>). 3/4 Shíshtíruba.
1/2 Nus (Ar. <A>) or Keni. 1/3 Shíshtísam.

Of Pronouns.

13. The system of pronouns in Harari, as in the Somali language, is artful and somewhat complicated. Like the Arabic it may be divided into separate and affixed. The separate or personal pronouns which have neither gender nor case are:--

Singular. Plural.
1st Pers. Án (<A>). Innásh or Inyásh.
2nd Pers. Akhákh (<A>). Akhákhásh (<A>)
3rd Pers. Huwa (<A>). (383) Hiyyásh.

14. The affixed pronouns or possessives attached to nouns are:--


1st Pers. - e, my or mine. e.g. Gár-e, my house.
2nd Pers. - khá, thy or thine. Gár-khá, thy house.
3rd Pers. - zo, or - so, his. Gár-zo, his house.


1st Pers. - zinya or sinya, our. e.g. Gár-zinya, our house.
2nd Pers. - kho, your. Gár-kho, your house.
3rd Pers. - zinyo or sinyo, their. Gár-zinyo, their house. (384)

In the same way attached pronouns are affixed to verbs:--

e.g. Sit-ayn, give (thou to) me.
Sit-ana, give (thou to) us.

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15. The demonstrative pronouns are :

Sing. Yí, this.
Yá, that.
Plur. Yíásh, or yí'ach, these.
Yá'ásh, or yá'ách, those.

The interrogative pronouns are the following:--

     Mántá (<A>), who?
     Mintá (<A>), what?

17. The reciprocal pronoun is expressed in Harari, as in Somali, by naf. Another common word is atte,

     e.g. Án atte hárkho, I myself went,
     Akhákh attekh hárkhí, thou thyself wentest,
     Huwa attezo háre, he himself went.

The Arabic word Ruh (<A> life or soul) is also used for "self " in such phrases as this:--

Mahatkho ruin-e, I smote myself.

Of Verbs.

18. The Harari verb, like the Somali, has only two tenses, a Past and a Present. The Future of the Indicative, as well as the Conditional and the Optative tenses, is formed by adding significant particles and the use of the substantive verb. The root is the 2nd person of the Imperative, and a Prohibitive is obtained by prefixing at (<A>), or by affixing mekh. In the negative forms, the Harari is more artfully constructed than the Somali verb.

19. The following are the two auxiliary verbs.

Past Tense.

(Affirmative Form.)

Singular. 1. I was, Án narkho (<A>).
2. Thou wast, Akhákh nárkhí.
3. He was, Huwa nárá.
Plural. 1. We were, Inyásh nárná.
2. Ye were, Akhákhásh narkhú (<A>).
3. They were, Hiyyásh nárú.

(Negative Form.)

Sing. 1. I was not, Án alnárkhúm (<A>).
2. Thou wast not, Akhákh alnárkhím.
3. He was not, Huwa alnárum.
Plur. 1. We were not, Inyásh alnárum.
2. Ye were not, Akhákhásh alnárkhúm.
3. They were not, Hiyyásh alnárúm.

Present Tense.

(Affirmative Form.)

Singular. Plural.
1. I am, Án halko. 1. We are, Inyásh halna (<A>).
2. Thou art. Akhákh halkhí. 2. Ye are, Akhákhásh halkhú.
3. He is, Huwa hal (<A>). 3. They are, Hiyyásh halú


(Negative Form.)

1. I am not, Án elkhúm. 1. Inyásh elnám.
2. Thou art not, Akhákh elkhím. 2. Akhákhásh elkhúm.
3. He is not, Huwa elúm. 3. Hiyyásh elúm.


Singular. Plural.
2. Be thou, Hal (<A>). 2. Be ye, Halkhú (<A>).

The second auxiliary has the sense of to become, and corresponds with "jirrah" of the Somal, who express "I am" by wá jogá, literally, "I stand."

Past Tense.

Sing. 1. I became, Án ikaní (<A>) náarkho.
2. Thou becamest, Akhákh tikání nárkhí.
3. He became, Huwa ikáni nárá.
Plur. 1. We became, Innásh nikání nárná.
2. Ye became, Akhákhásh tikání nárkhú.
3. They became, Hiyyásh ikání nárú.

Present Tense.

Sing. 1. I become, Án ikánákh (<A>).
2. Thou becomest, Akhákh tikánákh.
3. He becomes, Huwa ikánál.
Plur. 1. We become, Inyásh nikánáná (<A>)
2. Ye become, Akhákhásh tikánákhu.
3. They become, Hiyyásh ikánálú.


Singular. Plural.
2. Become thou, Kanni (<A>). 2. Become ye, Kánnú (<A>).


Sing. 2. Become not, ikánnimekh (<A>).
Plur. 2. Become not ye, ikánnumekh ( <A>).

23. The following is a specimen of a verb regularly conjugated.

Past Tense.

(Affirmative Form.)

Sing. 1. I went, Án letkho.
2. Thous wentest, Akhákh letkhí.
3. He went, Huwa leta (<A>).
Plur. 1. We went, Inyásh letna (<A>).
2. Ye went, Akhákhásh letkhú.
3. They went, Hiyyásh letú.

(Negative Form.)

Sing. 1. I went not, Án alletkhúm.
2. Thou wentest not, Akbákh alletkhím.
3. He went not, Huwa alletám.
Plur. 1. We went not, Inyásh aletnám.
2. Ye went not, Akhákásh alletkhúm.
3. They went not, Hiyyásh alletúm.

Present Tense.

(Affirmative Form.)

Singular. Plural.
1. I go, Án iletákh (<A>) 1. Inyásh niletáná.
2. Thou goest, Akhákh tiletínakh 2. Akhákhásh tiletákhú.
3. He goes, Huwa yiletál 3. Hiyyásh yiletálú.

(Negative Form.)

Sing. 1. I go not, Án iletumekh.
2. Thou goest not, Akhákh tiletumekh.
3. He goes not, Huwa iletumel.
Plur. 1. We go not, Inyásh niletumens.
2. Ye go not, Akhákhash tiletumekhú.
3. They go not, Hiyyásh iletuelú.

As in the Somali tongue and in the Semitic dialects generally, the Present serves for a Future tense: "I go," for "I shall or will go." A definite future is formed in Harari by adding the substantive verb to a participial form of the verb required to express futurity; e.g.

Sing. 1. I will go, Án iletle halkho.
2. Thou wilt go, Akháhk tiletle halkhí.
3. He will go, Huwa iletle hal.
Plur. 1. We will go, Inyásh niletle halns.
2. Ye will go, Akhákhásh tiletle halkhú.
3. They will go, Hiyyásh niletle halns.


Singular. Plural.
2. Go thou, Let. 2. Go ye, Leté.


2. Go not thou, At let. 2. Go not ye, At letú.


Going Yiletál (<A>) Not going, Iletumel.

Gone, Itletle.

* * * * *

Dialogues and Sentences.

Art thou well? Amánta khí?
Are ye well? Amánta khú?
Madam (to elderly female). Abbáy.
Sir. Abbá. Yá Sayyidí.
Are you well this morning? Amán hadarkhú?
Are you well this evening? Amán wa'alkhú?
Good morning. Amán be kero.
Good night. Amán be hedero.
I am well. Amán íntaná.
I am unwell. Nattú halbaná.
What is the matter with you? Min aganyekh?
Is your family well? Gár hawázum amánta khú?
I am better. Orintáy.
What news to-day? Hújí min war hal?
Good news to-day. Amán intá hújí.
It is cooler to-day than yesterday. Tájíná be hújí baradtá.
The air is cold. Dúf bárid intá
Come in and sit down. Ná tageb.
What is thy name? Sumkhá mintá?
Come here (to woman). Lakambay.
Dost thou drink coffee? Bun tiseshákbi?
I want milk. Háy ikháshakh.
Is water to be had here? Mí halí ye atáybe
Where goest thou? Ayde tahurákh?
I go to Harar. Gay uburákh.
Send away the people. Walamosh yí uso'o.
I love you. An waded khúsh.
What is shine age? Karníkha aygay sintá?
Don't laugh. Asehak.
Raise your legs. Igir hafúshí.
Don't go there. At her yadde.
This man is good. Yí abbá korám intá.
He is a great rascal. Huwa gidir harámintá.
I don't want you (woman). Ikháshá shúmekh.
Go from this. Let yibí,--Jehannam har.
Leave my house. Gár-e be witá.
Farewell ! Allahu le amánat! (literally, "In Allah's charge.")
Allah pardon thee! Aufi ashkbúkh!
What is the price of this coffee? Yí bun min be-tasímakh?
Five ashrafi (385) a bale. Ahad firasilah hamisti ashrafí.
This is dear. Yí gál intá.
This is very cheap. Yí kanná rakhís intá.
Give me bread. Sitain úkhát.
I will beat thee. Án imet akhákh.
I will not give. Án istámekh.
I am hungry. Ráhábenya.
I am thirsty. Tararenya.
I am tired. Dálágenya.
Where is thy house? Aydenta gárkhá?
I have much to do to-day. Húji bajíh habí halbayn.
We are about to travel. Safar nahuráná.
How large is Harar? Gay aygay sintá?
How far from this to Harar? Yí atáy wá Gay aygay sintá?
How many people at Harar? Gáy uso'o aygay sintá?
Dost thou know him? Akhákh tokakhí?
Dost thou know Arabic? Arab sinán tokákhí?
I don't know it. An úkumekh.
Hold my horse. Faras lahadlayn.
The price of this horse is a hundred dollars. Yí fares baklá kirshi (386) yakúchál.
There is. Hal.
What delayed you? Min lahadekh?
Is this knife thine? Yí masháh dínatkhánta?
How many horses hast thou? Misti farazásh halakh?
He killed him with a knife. Nifti bayn gadalú.
Open the door. Argabgí fitah.
Shut the door. Argabgí igad.
Fill my pipe. Gáyá milálayn.
Where is the book? Belá kitáb?
It is in the box. Sandúk bayn halt
What o'clock is it? Min sá' ante?
It is one P.M. Zohr be ahad sá' ate hará.
It is new moon. Warhe bakalá.
The sun is eclipsed. Khusúf khána irr.

Specimen of a Song in Harari.

Bukáhá, bukáhá wá tazkirat bukáhá:
Nabi bakale surúre fankazebay.
Alif lám kutub zál be diú wá ímánin tutúr.
Sabrí wá salátin tutúr.
Hamistáyn zobe nabbí azíowin tutúr.
Nabbi gárkho be, gár kho zarára be
Jannat shíre be, nabbí afosha be
Allah! iláhíyo, hurtay maláhiyo!


I weep, I weep, and I weep with (fond) remembrance,
(Thinking of) the Prophet's mule (he sitting) beautiful upon her back.
Alif-lám was written, faith and religion carrying,
Patience and prayer carrying,
(For the) fifth time the Prophet carrying,
The Prophet from his house, from the enclosure of his house,
To the midst of Paradise, the Prophet near--
Allah! O my Allah! near him place us!

The names of the months are:--

1. Ashúrá (meharram).
2. Safarwarhe.
3. Harar maulúd (including the two Rabia and the two Jamádí.)
7. Rajab.
7. Sha'abán.
9. Ramazán.
10. Shawwál.
11. Zulka'adah.
12. Zulhijjah.

* * * * *

Corn, holcus, and other grains are sold by this measure:

9 Handfuls= 1 Sugud (<A>).
5 Sugud= 1 Tít tárad (<A>).
6 Tít tárad= 1 Tárad.

The usual measures of length are:

Zumzurti (<A>), the span.
Kúrú (<A>) , the cubit.

The common weights are:

Nuss Ratli, the half pound.
Ratli, the pound.
Nuss farásilah, ten pounds.
Farásilah, the maund, twenty pounds.


N. B.--In the following pages, A. denotes that the word is pure Arabic; A.c. corrupt Arabic; Amh. Amharic; S. Somali. The mark (?) shows that the word is uncertain.


Abandon, v. Giffarr ( <A>).
Abdomen Karsí (A. c.).
Abide Tageb
Abode Gár
Above Lá'ay (<A>)
Absence Zalaylkho
Abuse Masdab
Accumulate Sámtí
Adulterer Fásik (A.), fem. Fásikít
Afraid Fírat
After Ehirr
Afternoon Asrí. Asr (A.)
Age Umri (A)
Air Dúf
Alive (well) Or (<A>)
All Jammí
Also (thus) Azzokút
Always Dáime (A.)
Amir's wife Gístí
Ancient Rágá, fem. Rágít
Angel Maláikah (A.)
Anger, s Ghazab (A.)
Angry Ghazbán (A.)
Another Alái (<A>)
Answer Jawab (A.)
Ant (black) Chúch
Ant (white) Kaynhúr
Arise, v. Halfbal
Arm Íji (<A>)
Arm-pit Kilkílát
Army Mákhedá (<A>) Askar (A.), Amír Askar, the Amir's army.
Arrow Láwá
Artificer Sáigh (A. esp. " goldsmith")
Ash (ashes) Hamad, pl. Hamadásh
Ask Athebrí (?)
Asleep Manyít
Ass Wajayrá
Ate (pret.) Balá
At once Ahad sá'ah (A.)
Aunt (maternal) Ikhistá
Aunt (paternal) Anna (<A>)
Avaricious Bakhíl
Awake Hafbal
Away! (begone!) Let!
Axe Kalká, pl. Kalkásh.


Back Háchí
Bad Yegassí
Bag Kís (A )
Baggage Mahawá
Baker Ukhát-Zálí (fem. as only women sell bread).
Ball (bullet) Rasás (A.).
Band Nází (the black satin ribbon worn by women round the head to fasten the fillet which contains the hair).
Band Nagarat (the Amir's kettle-drums, beaten at the hour of night prayers, as tocsin in times of danger, at the two festivals, and whenever the Prince leaves the palace)
Barren (women) Zat wilat, Goblan
Barter Manáwat
Base Yegassí
Basket Mudáí
Bath, s. Sagará (prop. a privy).
Bathe Háteb
Battle Gádal
Bazaar Magálah
Beard Daban
Beat (kill) Mahat
Beautiful Korám. Kor-zálah, fem. Korzálí
Bed Firásh (A.)
Bedstead Dúfán
Bee Nijját, Akús (?).
Beef Lám Basar
Beer (boozah) Gohay. (Dakhbí is beer mixed with mead.)
Before Aykad (<A>). "In early part of," Nadí (<A>)
Beggar Sakadad-báy (A.c. <A>)
Behind Ehirr
Behold, v Hayj
Belly Kars (A. c.)
Below (beneath) Taháy (<A>)
Bet Shart (A.)
Beyond (outside) Káchí
Bile Safrá (A.)
Bird Úf, plur. Úfásh
Bitch Bushít (Bushshít)
Bitter Marrí (A. c.<A>).
Black Táy
Blacksmith Tumtú
Blind, adj. Ín-zalaylá, fem. Ín-zalaylít
Blood Dam (A )
Blood-money Diyah (A )
Blunt, adj. Dumdum, bárid (A.)
Boat Za'ímah (A.)
Body Kám (A. c. <A>)
Bone At (<A>)
Book Kitáb
Bottle Kirárat (A. c.)
Bow Digáu
Box Sátán (?).
Boy (son) Lijjay
Bracelet (ivory) Áj (A.)
Bracelet (mans) Mál dáyá (the pewter armlet of a Galla chief)
Bracelet (woman's) Shánkháyt
Brain Hangullá
Bran (chaff) Hanshar
Brave Gisí (S.), ishullo (?)
Bread 'Ukhát
Break Síbarr
Breast (girl's) Kunná
Breeches Gannáfí, Kannáfí (?)
Bride Arúzít (A.c.)
Bridegroom Arúz (A. c.)
Bring Adej
Broadcloth h (<A>; Ar. <A> Jokh).
Broken Dallál (A.)
Brothers Ih (<A>, A c.).
Bug Tukhán (A. c.)
Bull Bárá
Burn, v. imp. Mágdí
Burnt Mágad
But Lákin (A.).
Butcher Suwíyyá (A.)
Buttocks Fuddí (S.)
Buy Khab (<A>)
Buying and selling Mokhab
By all means Lá budd (A.)
By fair means Amán be.
By foul means Yegassí be.


Calf, m. Rahas
Carpenter Najjár (A.)
Carpet Firásh(A.). Prayer-carpet, Sijjájah (A. c.)
Camel Gamaylah (A. c.), fem. Gamaylit
Cannon Madfá (A.)
Cat Adúrrú, Adan (?).
Cathedral Jámi (A.).
Cattle Dínat.
Certainly Dirkhí (S.).
Chain Silsilah (A.).
Change (barter) Manáwat.
Charcoal Kasal.
Charm (talisman) Kirtás (A.).
Cheap Rakhís (A.).
Child Waldí (A. c.), pl. Wildásh.
Cinnamon Korfá (A. c.).
Circumcision Absum.
Citron Turungá (A. c.).
City Magálah.
Clarified butter Nazíf (A.).
Clay Chebá.
Clean Muk ishísh.
Climb, v. Isal.
Cloth (man's "obe") Irás, pl. irázásh.
Cloth (woman's) Gúlúbáy (worn out of doors over the head). "Láy morad" is that thrown over the shoulders.
Cloth (man's shirt) Gidir kamís
Clouds Dánah
Clove Korunful (A.)
Club Gidir bartí
Coal (live) Gih
Coffee Bun (A.). "Kutti" is the decoction of the leaf drunk by the Hararis
Cold (catarrh) Hargab
Cole adj. Birdí (A. c.)
Colour Jinsí (A. c.)
Comb Filá (S. firin)
Come! Ná!
Containing (doing) --Zála
Cook (man) Dirig-zálá, Lelí (?)
Cook (woman) Dirig-zálí, Kibábah-zálí
Cooked Khánah
Cooking-pot (earthen) Makáto
Copper Nihás (A.)
Coral Murjain (A. c.)
Corpse Janáis (A. c.)
Corn Ays (A. c. ?)
Corn Indian Arab ikhí, lit. Arab holcus
Corn(Indian roasted) Arab ikhí únká
Cotton Tút (<A>)
Cough Úh (<A>)
Court-yard Katam barí
Cousin (female) Zer kahat
Cousin (male) Zer waldí, pl. Zer waldásh
Cow Lám
Cow (milch) Háy-zálí
Coward Wahaylo, fem. Wahaylít
Creeper Táj (so called when worn by men upon their turbands and women upon their fillets)
Crepitus Fas (A.)
Crooked Wandállá
Crow Kurrá
Cubit Kúrú
Cultivation Zará (A )
Cultivator Argatá (opposed to "Gallá," a Nomad)
Cummin seed Kamún (A )
Cup Geb
Cupping-horn Mahgút (Mahgút-ináí is the operator)
Cut Koch
Cuts (in cheek) Makdad (beauty-marks)


Dagger Shotal
Daily Jammí yámúm
Dance Fakarr
Danger (fright) Firít
Darkness Jilmah (A. c.)
Date (the fruit) Timir (A. c.). "Barni" is the Maskat date; "Sehárí" the small black date; "Farad" the large and juicy red variety
Daughter Kahat
Day Ma'altú
To-day Hújí
Yesterday Tájená
Third day ago Sestiná
Fourth day ago Rátiná
Day after to-morrow Sestá
Third day hence Ra'atá
Fourth day hence Zirabe'itá (?)
Fifth day hence Zikurkustá (?).
Dead (man) Janáis (A. c.); Mayyit (A.)
Deaf (man) Uzn-zalaylá
Deaf (woman) Uzn -zalaylít
Deaf and dumb Dúdah, fem. Dúdít; it also means idiotic.
Dear, adj. Ghálí (A.); Kímah tabig
Death Maut (A.)
Debt Mugot
Deer Waydalí
Delay Kaláh (<A>)
Denial Nakír (A.); Háshá (A.)
Deponent (witness) Rágá
Deposit Amánat (A.)
Descend, v. Wirad (?)
Descent Maurad
Desert, s. Udmá bád
Desert, adj. Udmá (generally applied to land without trees)
Deserving Wájib (A )
Desire (want) Fáj
Devil (Satan) Iblís (A.); Shaytán (A.)
Devil (sand-storm) Dúf
Die (dice) Lafo (S.)
Difficult Tabíg
Dig Hifarr. (A. c.); Khirr (?)
Dirt Wasakh (A.)
Discharge (release) Gifarr
Disease Mattú
Disease (venereal) Jabtú (S. Jabtí)
Dish Sehní (A. c.)
Dish-cover Mot; mo'ot (generally made of plaited straw)
Distant Ruhuk (<A>)
Ditch (pit) Chayr
Doer (masc. or fem.) Ináí (?).
Dog Bushshí
Dollar Karshí (Ar. Kirsh)
Door Gebtí
Doubt Shakk (A.)
Doubtful Shakanyá (A. c.)
Dream Birzáz
Dress Libáshá (A. c.); Irázásh
Dried Daraká
Drink, v Sích
Drinkables Mashjá
Drug Dawá (A.)
Drum Karabú
Drummer Karabú-zálá
Drunk (intoxicated) Sakhrá (A. c.)
Dry, v. Darak; Darag
Dumb, masc. Jabaká; arrát-zalaylá
Dumb, fem. Jabakít; arrat-zalaylít
Dust Sísá (Sesá S.)
Dwarf, masc. Hajayr
Dwarf, fem. Hajayrít


Each Ahad (A. c.)
Ear Uzn. Uzun (A. c.)
Ear-ring Faror
Earth Dashí (Tashshí ?)
East Írrtúj
Easy Yasír (A.)
Eat! v Bilá
Eatables Mablá. "Eatables and drinkables," mablá wá mashjá
Egg Ukoh (<A>)
Eight Sot
Eighth Sotkhá
Eighty Sot assir
Elder, eldest Gidirr
Elephant Dukhun
Eleven Assir ahad
Eloquent Tihayn
Employment Habí
Empty Kof
End! (finish!) Tabosh
Ended Tabayyá
Enemy Díná
Enough Hidak. Yokál
Envy Husúd (A.)
Envious Hasíd (A.c.)
Escape Sik
Eunuch Koch. Towásh (A.)
Evening Mashá (A.)
Every Jammí (A. c.)
Everything Jammí Shiyún (A. c.)
Evidence Rágá
Exchange Manáwat
Expense Farzí
Eye Ín (A. c.)
Eyelash Ín chigar


Face Fít
Fæces Gaf: Kaf (S.)
Faith (religion) Dín (A.)
Fall, v. Widak
False Kizbán
Fame Námús (A.)
Fan (fly-flapper) Zimbi Marwahah (A.)
Far Ruhug
Farewell! Amán! (A.)
Farmer Harrásh.
Fast, adv. Fitan.
Fast, s. Soman (A. c.)
Fat (strong) Jabábir (A. c.); Kassá (S.) Wadal.
Fate Ayyám (A.)
Father Áwa
Fault Ghalat (A.)
Fear! v. Fir
Fearful Fírat
Feather Bállí (S. Bál)
Feet Ingirásh. Pl. of Ingir
Female Inistí (A. c. ?).
Fetch Adej
Fetters Ingir birat
Fever Wiyí nattú
Few Tinne'o
Fillet (for woman's hair) Gúftá
Finger Atabinyá. Pl. Atábinyásh
Fire Isád
Fire-wood Mamágad
First Ahadkhá
Fish Túlam
Fist Dubuj
Five Hamistí
Fifth Hamistikhá
Fifty Hamistí assir
Flag Álan (A. c. and S.)
Flea Kunáj; Takfí(?); injir bodo(S.)
Flesh Basar
Fly Zimbí (A. c.)
Fodder Sa'ar
Food Mablá
Fool Jinám (A. c.)
Foot (leg) Ingir
Footstep Hardá
Force Tákh (A. c.)
By force Yegassí be
Forehead Fi'it
Fort Kalaí gár; darbí-gár
Forty Arbaín (A.)
Foul (impure) Najis (A.)
Four Harad; harat
Fourth Haratkhá
Fowl Atáwág, fem. atáwágít
Friend Rafík (A.); marren (?)
Frog Ankuráratí
From Be; bay
Full Mullu (?)
Gall (bile) Safrá (A )
Game Dabál (esp. the La'ab al-Khayl)
Gambler Kammár (A.)
Garden Harshí
Gardener Harshi-wandag
Garlic Tummá (A. c.); ton (S.)
Gate Bárí (A.)
Gate-keeper Bárí-goitá
Gather, v. Sámtí
Gazelle Sagáro (S.)
Generous Sakhí (A.)
Generosity Sakháwat (A.)
Get up! v. Hafbal
Gift Hadiyah (A.); mastá (?)
Ginger Zanjabílí
Giraffe Girhí (S.)
Girl (marriageable) Wahashí. Pl. Wahashi'ách
Girl (aged) Gidir Wahashí
Puella suta Duffun Wahashí (sicut est mos Somalorum et nationis Gallæ)
Puella aperta Kufut Wahashí
Girl (slave) Wasifít; Amharet
Girl Kahat.
Give, v. Sit (S.)
Glad Tass; tasstass
Glass (cup) Kás (A.)
Glass (looking) Murá'it (A. c.)
Glass (bootle, black) Kirárat Táy
Glass (red) Kayh (<A>)
Glory Námús (A.)
Glue (gum) Mukát
Go! v. Let (to a woman, Lechí)
Gone (pret.) Letá
Let go! Hidak; Gifarr
Goat (he) Kurmá
Goat (she) Dau
God Goita. N.B.--The Argobbas call the Supreme Being "Gaeto," the Gallas "Goite" or "Wák," and the Somal "Aybah" (<A>)
Gold Zikeh (A. c.)
Goods Maháwá
Good Korám
Good news War amán
Governor Nagáshí
Grandfather Bábá
Grandmother Ummá
Grape Anab (A.)
Grass Sa'ar
Grass-cutter (sickle) Záhabí
Gratis Bilásh (A.)
Grave Kabrí (A.); Plur. Kabrásh
Grave (saint's) Awásh Kabrí
Gravel Ún
Great, adj. Gidír
Greatest Jammí be Gadrí
Green Dámá: fem. Dámít. Akhzar (A.)
Groom Záhabí
Ground Tashshí. (?)
Ground (sloping) Gobaná
Guest Nugda
Guide Úga yúkzalinta (?)
Guinea Fowl Zikrá
Gum Mukát
Gun Nifti
Gunpowder Bárúd (A. c.)


Habitation Gár
Hail, s. Ún Zináb
Hail, v. Amán bidíchkhú
Hair Chigar
Hair (pecten) Foch chigar
Hair-pin (woman's) Filá
Half Nuss (A. c.): Kení
Hammer Madoshá; Buruj (?)
Hand Ijí
Handful Mahfass; Antobo (?)
Handwriting Kitab
Hang (tie, v.) Igad; Balnaya (S.)
Harbour Marsá (A.)
Hare Askokí; Bakhayla (S.)
Harlot Gubná
Haste! Fitan
Hatchet Kalká
Hay Sa'ar
Head Urus (A. c.)
Health Áfet (A. c.)
Hear Simá (A. c.)
Heart Wazanah
Heavy Razín (A )
He Huwa
Heel Kúb (A. c.)
Heir Yurs Zálintá. (The Arabic word "Mirás" is used for a legacy.)
Hell Azáb (A.); Jahanam (A.)
Here Idday. "Here I am," Labbay (A.)
High (tall, long) Gidorr
Hill, s. Sarí
His Zo or So
Ho! Yábú (S.); Akhákh yá
Hog Hariyyá
Holcus Sorghum Ikhí
Hole Gadú
Holloa! Akhákh yá
Honey Dús
Hoof Ingir
Horn (beast's) Karr (A. c.)
Horn (cupping) Mahgút
Horse Faras (in Ar. a mare; in Som. a horse)
Hot Wiyí
House Gár
House (thatched) Sa'ar gár; Gambisa
House (stone) Darbí gár
How much? Mistí?
Humble Miskín (A.)
Hundred Baklá
Hunger Abár
Hungry Rahab
Husband Abosh
Hut Wantaf gár (the Badawi's mat tents, called by the Somal, Gurgí)
I, pers. pron. Án
Ice Mí darak
Idle (useless) Mablúl
If Girr (?)
Ignorant Jáhil (A.); Wíj (the latter generally means "young")
Immense Bajíh
Immerse, v. Esbí
Immediately Fitan
In Bayn (A ?)
In that place Yadday
Infirm Gofáí
Inform, v. Warosh
Information War (Amh )
Injury Khasárá (A.)
Ink Maddí (A. c. from <A> ?)
Inkstand Dibet (A. c.)
Inquire, v. Athebrí (?)
Inside Ustú
Instead Manáwat; Tanáwat
Intelligent A'kil (A )
Inter, v. Kibarr
Interest (usury) Ribáh (A.)
Intestines (lower) Marachí
Intestines (higher) Kars (A. c.)
Intoxication Kayf (A.)
Intoxicating articles Khamrí (A.)
Iron Birat (S. bir.)
Itch, s. Wi'ir
Ivory Áj; dukhun-sin


Jackal Aizagadú (S. ídagalá, "burrowing below ground")
Jail Hasbí (A. c.)
Javelin Waram (S.)
Jewel Jauhar (A.)
Joke Charrakah (<A>)
Joker Fúhách
Journey Safar (A.)
Journey (by day) Hújí Safar
Journey (by night) Mishayt Safar
Jowari (holcus) Ikhí
Jowari (straw) Karah
Joy Farhah (A.); Tast
Judge Fikíh (A.); Kází (A.)
Jump, v. Shafbal
Just A'dil
Juvenile Darmá


Kat-plant (<A>) Ját
Kettle Disdí (A. c.); Makatú
Key Miftah (A.); Mifcháh (A. c.)
Kick, v. Rigat
Kidney Kuláy (A. c.)
Kill Gidal
Kiss, v. Mah (as among the Somal it is disliked.)
Kitchen Aweládá
Kite (bird) Tillí
Knee Gilib
Knife Masháh
Knot Kuturr
Know Úk
Knowledge Ilm (A )
Koosoo Sútí (the well-known vermifuge, called Hedo by the Somal)


Labour Ta'ab (A.)
Lake (colour) Kayh (<A>)
Lame Ingir zalaylá
Lamp Makhtút
Landlord Gár-zálá
Lane Kachín uga
Language Sinán
Large Gidir
Lass Kahat
Laughter Sahak (<A> A. c.); Mashak (?)
Law Sharíah (A.)
Lazy Mablúl
Lead Risás
Leaf Warak (A.); Kuttí
Leak (hole) Nudúl
Lean Gofáy
Learning, s. Ilm (A.)
Learned (man) Kabír (A.); Shaykh (A.)
Least Jammí be angál
Leather (hide) Gogá
Leech Ayktí ulá'úl (S.)
Left Gurá (Gragnay Amh. Guray S. "left-handed")
Left hand Gurá igí
Leg Ingir
Lend, v. Likch
Leopard Gargorá
Less Ansál
Liar Kizban
Lie Kiz (A. c.)
Light, adj. Khafíf (A.); Kafíf (A. c.)
Lightning Birik (A. c.); Birig
Like Kut (yí kut, "like this." Azzokut, "like unto him")
Lime (fruit) Zarbissí
Lime (cement) Núrat (A.)
Lion Wanág
Lips Laflaf
Listen, v. Simá
Little Tít (<A>)
Liver Kút
Living Húí (<A> A. c.)
Lo! Haych
Load Tá'an
Locust Kafjor
Look, v. Haych
Loose (open), v. Fitah; Matmas
Loss Khasárá (A.); Kobul
Lose (the way, &c.) (Úga) Kabad
Love Ishkí (A.)
In love (man) Abosh áshaká
In love (woman) Indosh áshaktí
Louse Kúmáy (A. c. ?)
Low, adj. chír
Mad Jinám
Mad-dog Jinám bushí
Madam Abbáy
Magic Falá (S.)
Magician Falá-zálá
Maid servant Gáfit
Main mast Gidir dagal
Make, v. Úsh
Malady Nattú
Male Abosh
Malice Dínah
Man Abosh
Many Bajíh
Many times Bajíh gir
March, s. Malayt
Mare Inistí fares
Mariner Bahrí (A.)
Mark, s. Astá
Market place Magálah
Marriage Mansá
Marriage-portion Mehr (A.)
Married (man) Mishtí-hálá
Married (woman) Abosh-hálí
Master Marín
Mat Saylan
Match (gun's) Niftí fatílat
Mead Taj
Meal (ground corn) Ays fíchah
Measure Sifar
Meat Basar
Merchant Bá'u: tájir
Message Lo'okh
Middle Guttí; ustú (?): in the middle, guttí bayn
Milk Háy
Milk-pot Kadádah
Milk-pot cover Offá
Minaret Khutbá
Mine (it is) Án zád intá
Misery Masíbah (A. c.)
Model Áyinah (A.)
Money Mahallak (a brass coin current at Harar)
Monkey Zágarú
Month Warhay
Moon Charaká
In the morning Subhí (A.)
Mortar Mokaj (the pestle is called "Kaballá")
Mortgage Rahan (A.); Luhut
Mosquito Bimbí
Mother A'e
Mould (earth) Afar
Mountain Sarí
Mouse Fúr (A. c.)
Mouth Afe (Amh. S.)
Mud Chebá
Mule Baghl
Murder Motá
Murderer Igadlí-zál; Gadáy (?)
Murdered Gidalú
Musjid (mosque) Masgít
Musk Misk (A). Zabád (A. civet, generally confounded by Orientals with musk)
Mustachio Shárib (A.)
My ---e
Myrrh Karabí


Nail Mismár (A.)
Nail (hand) Tifir (A. c.)
Naked Kofh
Name Sum (A. c.)
Narrow Chinkí
Nasty Yegassí
Navel Hamburtí.
Near Kurrá
Necessary (it is) Yakhúnál
Necessity Hájah (A.)
Neck Angat
Necklace Shandúd
Needle Morfí
Needy Fuk
Negro Gáfá
Neighbour Afoshá
Nest Úf gár
Never Abadan (A.)
Never mind Ahadúm aylá
New Hajís
News War (S.)
Night Artú
By night Mushayt
Nine Sehtan; Zehtáyn
Ninth Sehtan khá
Ninety Sehtaná
Nipple (man's) Tút (<A>)
Nipple (woman's) Kunná
No! May!
Nobody (there is) Uso'o aylúm
Nonsense Kishná
North Jáh (A.); Kiblah (A.)
Nose Úf
Nostril Úf nudúl
There is nothing Aylúm
Now Akhkhá
Number Helkí


Oath Tirayt
Ocean Bahr (A )
Oil Salayt (A.)
Old Rágá, fem. Rágít
Omen Fál (A.)
On (upon) La'ay
Once Ahad muttí; Ahad gír
At once Fitan
One Ahad
One third Shíshtí-sám (A. <A>)
One-armed Ahad íjí zalaylá
One-eyed Ahad ín zalaylá
One-legged Ahad ingir zalaylá
Onion Shunkortá
Open, v. Fitah
Opened Futoh
Oppressor Zálim (A.)
Oppression Zulmi (A. c.)
Or Walau (?). Ammá (A.)
Order Amr (A )
Orphan Yetím (A.); "á'e zalaylá," motherless; "áwa zalaylá," fatherless
Ostrich Guráyyá (S.)
Our Zinya
Outside Mantá
Owner Zálá, fem. Zálí
Ox Bárá


Pace Malaytá
Pair Kut; Ko'ot
Palace Nagáshí gár
Palm (hand's) Kaff'í (A. c.)
Paper Talhayyá
Paramour (fem.) Gazan
Partner Sharík (A.)
Pass, v. Let
Path Kachín úga
Pauper Zaygá
Pawn Rahan (A )
Peace Amán (A )
Pearl Lúl (A.)
Pen Kalam (A )
Penis Gantir
People Uso'o
Pepper (black) Arab barbarí
Pepper (red) Barbarí
Perform, v. Osh
Perspiration Wizí
Pestle Kaballá
Piece Koch (?)
Pig Hariyyá; Karkarrú
Pigeon Hamímí (A. c.)
Pillow Makhaddá (A.)
Pimple Kím
Pin Filá
Pinch, v. Kontá
Pipe (smoking) Gáyá (the Indian "Gurgurí")
Pipe tube k
Pistol Tinneo Naftí
Pit (cesspool) Gadú
Pity Rahmah (A.)
Place Attáí
Plain Dídá
Plantain Mauz (A )
Plate (for baking bread) Kibábah (A. c.); Tábah (?)
Platter (wooden) Gabatá
Plough Willítá; Mahras (A.)
Plunder Mahmat
Pocket Kís (A )
Poetry Fakarr
Poison Summí (A )
Poisoned Summí-zálá
Pomegranate Rummán (A.)
Ponderous Razín (A )
Possible (it is) Yakhúnál
Pot (earthen) Makatú
Pot-bellied Kasá-zálá
Pound (weight) Ratlí
Pox Kitin
Pretence Haylah (A.)
Pregnant Karsí; Zálí
Price Báy
Pride Kibrí (A )
Priest Fakíh (A )
Prison Hasbí (A.)
Prisoner Úgud
Privy Sagara
Procurable Yaganyo
Prodigious Ajab (A.)
Profit Nafí (A. c.)
Proof Ragá
Proud (man) Kibrí-zálá; Kibran
Proud (woman) Kibrí-zálí; Kibríyyít
Provisions Mablá
Pud. Dúr
Pumpkin Arab dubbá (S.)
Purse Kís (A.)


Quadruped Dínat
Quantity Mistí
Quarter Rubá (A )
Quarter (of town) Afochá
Queen Gístí
Question Mathebar
Quickly Fitan
Quill Bállí (S.)
Quiver Hinnách


Rage Za'al (A.); herár
Raid Dína
Raiment Irázásh
Rain Zináb
Raise, v. Hafush
Raisin Zabíb (A )
Ram Táy
Ran, v. pret. Saká
Rapid Fitan
Rascal Mablúl
Rat Fúr (A )
Raven Kurrá
Raw Terí
Razor Sháldá (?)
Read Kira (A. c.)
Real (dollar) Karshí
Rebel Ásí (A.)
Rebellion Balwá (A.)
Receive Nisá
Red Kayh: fem. Kayhít
Region Bád
Regret Hammá (A. c.); Ghammá (A. c.)
Rein (bridle) Hakamá (S.)
Relations Ahl (A.)
Remain Kirr (A. c.)
Remainder Karrá
Remedy Dawá
Remote Ruhuk, ruhug
Remove Ústí
Repletion Tufá (?)
Reply War. (Bring a reply: "War adej." Take my reply: "Ware ustí.")
Reptile Hubáb
Residence Gár
Rest, s. hah (A.)
Return (i.e. give me back) Argabgilayn
Revenge, s. Kisás (A.)
Take revenge Kisás ushú
Reverse, v. Gargab
Reward Sakah; dínat (?)
Rib Maytak
Rich Ghaní (A )
Rice Ruz (A.)
Ride, v. Isal
Right (proper) Korám
Right hand Kainyít
Right and left Gurá wá Kainyít
Ring Makhtar
Riot Matmáhat
Rise up Hafbal
Rising (ground) Karát
Risk Fir
River Zar; Masrí (?)
Road Úga
Roast, v. Absil. (Roast the meat. "Basar absil.")
Rob, v. Rojh. (He robbed me. "Rojhábayn.")
Robber Rojhí
Robbery Márojha
Robe (woman's) Indosh írás
Robe (blue) Táy írás
Robe (white) Najíh írás
Rock Sarí
Rogue Mablúl
Roof Darbenjí
Room Kitrat
Root Sirr; Hedid (S.)
Rosary Tasbih (A.)
Rose-water Má-ward (A.)
Rope Fatít
Ruin Kh'ráb (A.)
Ruler Nagáshí
Run, v. Taráwat
Run away! Rot! Sik!


Sack (ox-skin) Dawullá (large bags used on journeys)
Sack (sheep-skin) Jíráb (A. c. small saddle-bags; the bags for asses are called "Matan")
Saddle Kor (S. Kore); Hánká (?)
Saffron Waras (A.)
Saint Walí
Salt Assú
Sand Afar
Sandals Ashín
Sash (girdle) Hankot
Say, v. Asa